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Your Turn! A central atom has two lone pair of electrons around it and two single bonds to other atoms. What is the electron pair geometry around the central atom? tetrahedron pentagon trigonal bipyramid square pyramid octahedron

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Your Turn! What is the electron pair geometry around an atom that has six electron domains? What are the angles between the electron pairs? tetrahedron, 109.5o hexagon, 60o and 120o trigonal bipyramid, 120o square pyramid, 90o octahedron, 90o or

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Predict electronic and molecular shapes

Use the tables in your text or on the next two slides AsF3 tetrahedral, trigonal pyramidal ClO2- tetrahedral, bent ClF trigonal bipyramidal, T-shaped

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Your Turn! What is the molecular geometry of a molecule with four single bonds and two lone electron pairs attached to the center atom? A. trigonal bipyramid B. trigonal planar C. distorted tetrahedron D. square pyramid E. square planar

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PCl3 is an industrial chemical used in many herbicides and insecticides. What is the molecular shape of PCl3? bent tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal T-shaped trigonal planar

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Predict the geometry and bond angles of PCl3

1. Draw the Lewis structure – 26 valence electrons 2. Determine the number of electron domains around the central atom – four electron domains around P

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Predict the geometry and bond angles of PCl3

3. Classify the electron domains a) three bonding groups b) one lone pair 4. Use Table 9.5 to determine the shape and bond angles a) four electron domains around P = tetrahedral electron geometry b) three bonding + one lone pair = trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry c) trigonal pyramidal = bond angles less than 109.5°

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PCl3 is an industrial chemical used in many herbicides and insecticides. What is the molecular shape of PCl3? bent tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal T-shaped trigonal planar Answer: c

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What are the electron and molecular geometries, respectively, for BrF3?

trigonal bipyramidal, T-shaped trigonal bipyramidal, trigonal planar trigonal planar, trigonal planar T-shaped, trigonal bipyramidal T-shaped, trigonal planar

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What are the electron and molecular geometries, respectively, for BrF3?

trigonal bipyramidal, T-shaped trigonal bipyramidal, trigonal planar trigonal planar, trigonal planar T-shaped, trigonal bipyramidal T-shaped, trigonal planar Answer: a

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Predict the molecular geometry and bond angles in SiF5─

Si least electronegative 5 electron groups on Si Si is central atom 5 bonding groups 0 lone pairs Si = 4e─ F5 = 5(7e─) = 35e─ (─) = 1e─ total = 40e─ Shape = trigonal bipyramid Bond angles Feq–Si–Feq = 120° Feq–Si–Fax = 90°

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Your Turn! How many electron domains are there around the central atom in SF4O? What is the electron pair geometry for the compound? 4, tetrahedron 5, pentagon 5, trigonal bipyramid 4, square pyramid 6, octahedron

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Your Turn! For the species, ICl5, how many bonding domains and how many nonbonding domains exist? A. 1, 5 B. 4, 1 C. 1, 4 D. 5, 2 E. 5, 1

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Your Turn! For the species that you just considered, ICl5, what is the electron domain geometry? A. trigonal planar B. tetrahedron C. trigonal bipyramid D. octahedron

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Your Turn! For the species that you just considered, ICl5, what is the molecular geometry? A. trigonal bipyramid B. trigonal planar C. distorted tetrahedron D. square pyramid

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Predict whether NH3 is a polar molecule

Draw the Lewis structure and determine the molecular geometry a) eight valence electrons b) three bonding + one lone pair = trigonal pyramidal molecular geometry

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Predict whether NH3 is a polar molecule

2. Determine if the bonds are polar a) electronegativity difference b) if the bonds are not polar, we can stop here and declare the molecule will be nonpolar ENN = 3.0 ENH = 2.1 3.0 − 2.1 = 0.9 therefore the bonds are polar covalent

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Predict whether NH3 is a polar molecule

3) Determine whether the polar bonds add together to give a net dipole moment a) vector addition b) generally, asymmetric shapes result in uncompensated polarities and a net dipole moment The H─N bond is polar. All the sets of bonding electrons are pulled toward the N end of the molecule. The net result is a polar molecule.

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Practice – Decide whether the following molecules are polar.

Trigonal Bent Trigonal Planar 2.5 1. polar bonds, N-O 2. asymmetrical shape 1. polar bonds, all S-O 2. Polar bonds cancel out polar nonpolar

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Which of the following molecules is the most polar molecule?

a) b) c) d) e)

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Which of the following molecules is the most polar molecule?

a) b) c) d) e) Answer: c

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Which of the following molecules is nonpolar?

NH3 XeF4 H2O CH3Cl CH2Cl2

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Which of the following molecules is nonpolar?

NH3 XeF4 H2O CH3Cl CH2Cl2 Answer: b

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Your Turn! Imagine a molecule, MX2, in which both X atoms are bonded to M and M also has 3 lone electron pairs on it. What is the electron domain geometry and is this molecule polar? A. square pyramidal, yes B. trigonal bipyramidal, no C. tetrahedral, yes D. tetrahedral, no E. linear, no

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Your Turn! Imagine a molecule, MX2, in which both X atoms are bonded to M and M also has 2 lone electron pairs on it. What is the electron domain geometry and is this molecule polar? A. square pyramidal, yes B. trigonal bipyramidal, no C. tetrahedral, yes D. tetrahedral, no E. linear, no H2O is an example:

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Your Turn! Which of the following molecules is polar? A. BClF2 B. BF3

C. NH4+ D. NO3– E. C2H2

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Your Turn! On the previous slide we saw that hybridizing s + p + p forms three hybrid orbitals designated as sp 2 orbitals. Predict the number and designation of orbitals formed by hybridizing s + p + p + p + d (i.e., hybridize one s, three p, and one d orbital). A. three, spd B. three, sp3d C. five, spd D. five, sp3d E. five, s3pd 29

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Your Turn! What is the hybridization of oxygen in OCl2? A. sp B. sp 3 C. sp 2 D. No hybridization

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Two electron domains and 180o bond angle: sp hybrid orbitals

Your Turn! What is the hybridization of the carbon atom in carbon disulfide? A. sp B. sp 3 C. sp 2 D. sp 3d D. sp 3d 2 C S Two electron domains and 180o bond angle: sp hybrid orbitals

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Your Turn! For the species ClF2+, determine the following:

1. electron domain geometry molecular geometry tetrahedral, trigonal planar pentagonal, tetrahedral tetrahedral, bent trigonal planar, bent

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Your Turn! For the species ClF2+, determine the following: 1. hybridization around the central atom 2. Polarity A. sp 2, polar B. sp 3, non-polar C. sp 3, polar D. sp 2, non-polar

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Your Turn! For the species XeF4O, determine the following:

1. electron domain geometry 2. molecular geometry octahedral, square pyramidal trigonal bipyramidal, distorted tetrahedral square pyramidal, octahedral trigonal bipyramidal, planar

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Your Turn! For the species XeF4O, determine the following:

hybridization around the central atom the molecular polarity A. sp3d , polar B. sp3d 2, polar C. sp3d , nonpolar D. sp3d2, nonpolar

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Your Turn! How many and bonds are there in CH2CHCHCH2, and what is the hybridization around the carbon atoms? A. 7, 1, sp B. 8, 2, sp 3 C. 9, 2, sp 2 D. 9, 3, sp 2 E. 8, 2, sp

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Your Turn! How many and bonds are there in carbon monoxide and what is the hybridization of the C and O atoms? A. 1, 2, both sp B. 2, 2, both sp C. 0, 3, both sp 2 D. 3, 0, sp 2 and sp E. 3, 2, sp 2 and sp C O

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Which orbitals overlap to form the σ bond between the sulfur and fluorine atoms in the molecule SF4?

sp3d hybrid of S and 2p of F sp3 hybrid of S and 2p of F sp2 hybrid of S and 3p of F sp3d2 hybrid of S and 2p of F sp3d hybrid of S and 3p of F

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Which orbitals overlap to form the σ bond between the sulfur and fluorine atoms in the molecule SF4?

sp3d hybrid of S and 2p of F sp3 hybrid of S and 2p of F sp2 hybrid of S and 3p of F sp3d2 hybrid of S and 2p of F sp3d hybrid of S and 3p of F Answer: a

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What is the hybridization of the central atom in XeF2?

sp sp2 sp3 sp3d sp3d2

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What is the hybridization of the central atom in XeF2?

sp sp2 sp3 sp3d sp3d2 Answer: d

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If the electron pair geometry around an atom is tetrahedral, then the hybridization about that atom is sp. sp2. sp3. sp3d. sp3d2.

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If the electron pair geometry around an atom is tetrahedral, then the hybridization about that atom is sp. sp2. sp3. sp3d. sp3d2. Answer: c

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Which of the following hybridization schemes allows the formation of at least one bond?

sp3 sp2 sp3d2 All of the above allow for a bond. None of the above allow for a bond.

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Which of the following hybridization schemes allows the formation of at least one bond?

sp3 sp2 sp3d2 All of the above allow for a bond. None of the above allow for a bond. Answer: b

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Which molecule has the smallest bond angles?

CO2 NH3 SF6 BrF5

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Which molecule has the smallest bond angles?

CO2 NH3 SF6 BrF5 Answer: d Draw Lewis structures. BrF5 has a lone pair which compresses the octahedral bond angles.

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