Initial Value Theorem and Final Value Theorem
Initial Value Theorem and Final Value Theorem

THE LAPLACE TRANSFORM LEARNING GOALS Definition The transform maps a function of time into a function of a complex variable Two important singularity functions The unit step and the unit impulse Transform pairs Basic table with commonly used transforms Properties of the transform Theorem describing properties. Many of them are useful as computational tools Performing the inverse transformation By restricting attention to rational functions one can simplify the inversion process Convolution integral Basic results in system analysis Initial and Final value theorems Useful result relating time and s-domain behavior

ONE-SIDED LAPLACE TRANSFORM A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR EXISTENCE OF LAPLACE TRANSFORM THE INVERSE TRANSFORM Contour integral in the complex plane Evaluating the integrals can be quite time-consuming. For this reason we develop better procedures that apply only to certain useful classes of function

TWO SINGULARITY FUNCTIONS This function has derivative that is zero everywhere except at the origin. We will “define” a derivative for it Unit step (Important “test” function in system analysis) Using square pulses to approximate an arbitrary function Using the unit step to build functions The narrower the pulse the better the approximation

Computing the transform of the unit step An example of Region of Convergence (RoC) Complex Plane RoC

These two conditions are not feasible for “normal” functions (Good model for impact, lightning, and other well known phenomena) THE IMPULSE FUNCTION Approximations to the impulse Representation of the impulse Height is proportional to area Sifting or sampling property of the impulse Laplace transform

LEARNING BY DOING We will develop properties that will permit the determination of a large number of transforms from a small table of transform pairs

Linearity Time shifting Time truncation Multiplication by exponential Multiplication by time Some properties will be proved and used as efficient tools in the computation of Laplace transforms

LEARNING EXAMPLE LINEARITY PROPERTY Homogeneity Additivity Follow immediately from the linearity properties of the integral APPLICATION Basic Table of Laplace Transforms We develop properties that expand the table and allow computation of transforms without using the definition

LEARNING EXAMPLE With a similar use of linearity one shows Notice that the unit step is not shown explicitly. Hence Application of Linearity Additional entries for the table LEARNING EXAMPLE


MULTIPLICATION BY TIME LEARNING EXAMPLE Differentiation under an integral This result, plus linearity, allows computation of the transform of any polynomial LEARNING BY DOING


LEARNING EXTENSION One can apply the time shifting property if the time variable always appears as it appears in the argument of the step. In this case as t-1 The two properties are only different representations of the same result

PERFORMING THE INVERSE TRANSFORM Simple, complex conjugate poles FACT: Most of the Laplace transforms that we encounter are proper rational functions of the form Zeros = roots of numerator Poles = roots of denominator KNOWN: PARTIAL FRACTION EXPANSION Pole with multiplicity r If m<n and the poles are simple THE INVERSE TRANSFORM OF EACH PARTIAL FRACTION IS IMMEDIATE. WE ONLY NEED TO COMPUTE THE VARIOUS CONSTANTS

SIMPLE POLES LEARNING EXAMPLE Get the inverse of each term and write the final answer Write the partial fraction expansion “FORM” of the inverse transform Determine the coefficients (residues) The step function is necessary to make the function zero for t<0

COMPLEX CONJUGATE POLES USING QUADRATIC FACTORS Avoids using complex algebra. Must determine the coefficients in different way The two forms are equivalent !

LEARNING EXAMPLE MUST use radians in exponent Using quadratic factors Alternative way to determine coefficients

MULTIPLE POLES The method of identification of coefficients, or even the method of selecting values of s, may provide a convenient alternative for the determination of the residues

LEARNING EXAMPLE Using identification of coefficients


LEARNING EXAMPLE Using convolution to determine a network response In general convolution is not an efficient approach to determine the output of a system. But it can be a very useful tool in special cases

INITIAL AND FINAL VALUE THEOREMS These results relate behavior of a function in the time domain with the behavior of the Laplace transform in the s-domain INITIAL VALUE THEOREM FINAL VALUE THEOREM

Laplace LEARNING EXAMPLE LEARNING EXTENSION Clearly, f(t) has Laplace transform. And sF(s) -f(0) is also defined. F(s) has one pole at s=0 and the others have negative real part. The final value theorem can be applied. Laplace

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