Square planar @ Chemistry Dictionary & Glossary

The molecule with square planar structure is
The molecule with square planar structure is

Square planar is a molecular shape that results when there are four bonds and two lone pairs on the central atom in the molecule. An example of a square planar molecule is xenon tetrafluoride (XeF4). This molecule is made up of six equally spaced sp3d2 (or d2sp3) hybrid orbitals arranged at 90° angles. The shape of the orbitals is octahedral. Two orbitals contain lone pairs of electrons on opposite sides of the central atom. The remaining four atoms connected to the central atom give the molecule a square planar shape.

Square pyramidal is a molecular shape that results when there are five bonds and one lone pair on the central atom in the molecule. Bromine pentafluoride (BrF5) has the geometry of a square pyramid, with fluorine atoms occupying five vertices, one of which is above the plane of the other four. This molecule is made up of six equally spaced sp3d2 (or d2sp3) hybrid orbitals arranged at 90° angles. The shape of the orbitals is octahedral. Because of the high symmetry of the octahedral arrangement, all six positions are equivalent, so it does not matter in which position in the drawing we put the lone pair. The remaining four atoms connected to the central atom give the molecule a square planar shape.

Trigonal planar is a molecular shape that results when there are three bonds and no lone pairs around the central atom in the molecule. The pairs are arranged along the central atom’s equator, with 120° angles between them. Molecules with an trigonal planar electron pair geometries have sp2d hybridization at the central atom. The carbonate ion (CO32-) has a trigonal planar geometry.

Planary structure of molecule is a structure of molecule in which all atoms in the molecule lie in the same plane.

Activated charcoal or activated carbon is charcoal that has been activated for adsorption by steaming or by heating in a vacuum. Charcoal is obtained by burning wood, nutshells, coconut husks or other materials. Charcoal becomes activated by heating it with steam to approximately 1000 °C in the absence of oxygen.

The chemical nature of amorphous carbon, combined with a high surface area makes it an ideal medium for the adsorption of organic chemicals. A single gram of such material can have 400 m2 to 1 200 m2 square meters of surface area. Activated charcoal is widely used to decolorize liquids, recover solvents, and remove toxins from water and air.

Amount concentration (also called molar concentration and in older literature molarity) is the amount of a given substance in a stated unit of a mixture, solution, or ore. The common unit is mole per cubic decimetre (moldm−3) or mole per litre (molL-1) sometimes denoted by M.

The concentration of an atom, ion, or molecule in a solution may be symbolised by the use of square brackets, as [Ca2+].

Brinell hardness is a scale for measuring the hardness of metals introduced around 1900 by Swedish metallurgist Johan Brinell (1849-1925). A small chromium steel ball is pressed into the surface of the metal by a load of known weight. The loading force is in the range of 300 N to 30 000 N. The ratio of the mass of the load in kilograms to the area of the depression formed in square millimetres is the Brinell Hardness Number.

Global hectares (gha) are hectares with world-average productivity for all productive land and water areas in a given year. Because different land types have different productivity, a global hectare of, for example, cropland, would occupy a smaller physical area than the much less biologically productive pasture land, as more pasture would be needed to provide the same biocapacity as one hectare of cropland (“ordinary” hectare is an area equal to a square that is 100 meters on each side, so a hectare has 10 000 m2). Global hectare is unit for measuring our demands on the Earth (ecological footprint) and the ability of the Earth to supply our demands (biocapacity).

Generalic, Eni. “Square planar.” Croatian-English Chemistry Dictionary & Glossary. 29 June 2022. KTF-Split. {Date of access}. <https://glossary.periodni.com>.

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