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Objectives for Section 10.7 Marginal Analysis. The student will be able to compute: Marginal cost, revenue and profit Marginal average cost, revenue and profit The student will be able to solve applications. Marginal Cost.

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Objectives for Section 10.7 Marginal Analysis • The student will be able to compute: • Marginal cost, revenue and profit • Marginal average cost, revenue and profit • The student will be able to solve applications Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Marginal Cost Remember that marginal refers to an instantaneous rate of change, that is, a derivative. Definition: If x is the number of units of a product produced in some time interval, then Total cost = C(x) Marginal cost = C’(x) Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Marginal Revenue andMarginal Profit Definition: If x is the number of units of a product sold in some time interval, then Total revenue = R(x) Marginal revenue = R’(x) If x is the number of units of a product produced and sold in some time interval, then Total profit = P(x) = R(x) – C(x) Marginal profit = P’(x) = R’(x) – C’(x) Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Marginal Cost and Exact Cost Assume C(x) is the total cost of producing x items. Then the exact cost of producing the (x + 1)st item is C(x + 1) – C(x). The marginal cost is an approximation of the exact cost. C’(x) ≈ C(x + 1) – C(x). Similar statements are true for revenue and profit. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 1 • The total cost of producing x electric guitars is C(x) = 1,000 + 100x – 0.25×2. • Find the exact cost of producing the 51st guitar. • Use the marginal cost to approximate the cost of producing the 51st guitar. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 1(continued) • The total cost of producing x electric guitars is C(x) = 1,000 + 100x – 0.25×2. • Find the exact cost of producing the 51st guitar. • The exact cost is C(x + 1) – C(x). • C(51) – C(50) = 5,449.75 – 5375 = $74.75. • Use the marginal cost to approximate the cost of producing the 51st guitar. • The marginal cost is C’(x) = 100 – 0.5x • C’(50) = $75. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Marginal Average Cost Definition: If x is the number of units of a product produced in some time interval, then Average cost per unit = Marginal average cost = Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Marginal Average Revenue Marginal Average Profit If x is the number of units of a product sold in some time interval, then Average revenue per unit = Marginal average revenue = If x is the number of units of a product produced and sold in some time interval, then Average profit per unit = Marginal average profit = Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Warning! To calculate the marginal averages you must calculate the average first (divide by x), and then the derivative. If you change this order you will get no useful economic interpretations. STOP Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 2 The total cost of printing x dictionaries is C(x) = 20,000 + 10x 1. Find the average cost per unit if 1,000 dictionaries are produced. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 2(continued) The total cost of printing x dictionaries is C(x) = 20,000 + 10x 1. Find the average cost per unit if 1,000 dictionaries are produced. = $30 Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 2(continued) • Find the marginal average cost at a production level of 1,000 dictionaries, and interpret the results. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 2(continued) • Find the marginal average cost at a production level of 1,000 dictionaries, and interpret the results. • Marginal average cost = This means that if you raise production from 1,000 to 1,001 dictionaries, the price per book will fall approximately 2 cents. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 2(continued) 3. Use the results from above to estimate the average cost per dictionary if 1,001 dictionaries are produced. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 2(continued) 3. Use the results from above to estimate the average cost per dictionary if 1,001 dictionaries are produced. Average cost for 1000 dictionaries = $30.00 Marginal average cost = – 0.02 The average cost per dictionary for 1001 dictionaries would be the average for 1000, plus the marginal average cost, or $30.00 + $(- 0.02) = $29.98 Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3 • The price-demand equation and the cost function for the production of television sets are given by • where x is the number of sets that can be sold at a price of $p per set, and C(x) is the total cost of producing x sets. • Find the marginal cost. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • The price-demand equation and the cost function for the production of television sets are given by • where x is the number of sets that can be sold at a price of $p per set, and C(x) is the total cost of producing x sets. • Find the marginal cost. • Solution: The marginal cost is C’(x) = $30. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • Find the revenue function in terms of x. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • Find the revenue function in terms of x. • The revenue function is • 3. Find the marginal revenue. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • Find the revenue function in terms of x. • The revenue function is • 3. Find the marginal revenue. • The marginal revenue is • Find R’(1500) and interpret the results. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • Find the revenue function in terms of x. • The revenue function is • 3. Find the marginal revenue. • The marginal revenue is • Find R’(1500) and interpret the results. • At a production rate of 1,500, each additional set increases revenue by approximately $200. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) 5. Graph the cost function and the revenue function on the same coordinate. Find the break-even point. 0 <x< 9,000 0 <y< 700,000 Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) 5. Graph the cost function and the revenue function on the same coordinate. Find the break-even point. 0 <x< 9,000 R(x) 0 <y< 700,000 Solution: There are two break-even points. C(x) (600,168,000) (7500, 375,000) Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • Find the profit function in terms of x. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • Find the profit function in terms of x. • The profit is revenue minus cost, so • Find the marginal profit. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • Find the profit function in terms of x. • The profit is revenue minus cost, so • Find the marginal profit. • 8. Find P’(1500) and interpret the results. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e

Example 3(continued) • Find the profit function in terms of x. • The profit is revenue minus cost, so • Find the marginal profit. • 8. Find P’(1500) and interpret the results. • At a production level of 1500 sets, profit is increasing at a rate of about $170 per set. Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e