Molecular Models Activity

SCl2 Lewis Structure: How to Draw the Lewis Structure for SCl2
SCl2 Lewis Structure: How to Draw the Lewis Structure for SCl2

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Molecular Models Activity
carbon tetrachloride methane water ethane ethyne dihydrogen monosulfide carbon dioxide ammonia hydrogen monochloride trichloromethane urea propane butane nitrogen triiodide (video) supplies

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Bonding and Shape of Molecules
Number of Bonds Number of Unshared Pairs Covalent Structure Shape Examples 2 3 4 1 2 -Be- Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral Pyramidal Bent BeCl2 BF3 CH4, SiCl4 NH3, PCl3 H2O, H2S, SCl2 B C N : O :

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Lewis Structures 1) Count up total number of valence electrons
2) Connect all atoms with single bonds – “multiple” atoms usually on outside – “single” atoms usually in center; C always in center, H always on outside. 3) Complete octets on exterior atoms (not H, though) – no unpaired electrons (free radicals) 4) Check – valence electrons match with Step 1 – all atoms (except H) have an octet; if not, try multiple bonds – any extra electrons? Put on central atom

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Carbon tetrachloride Cl Cl C Cl Cl Cl C CCl4 Tetrahedral geometry
Carbon tetrachloride – “carbon tet” had been used as dry cleaning solvent because of its extreme non-polarity.

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Methane H H C H H H C Tetrahedral geometry
Methane –The first member of the paraffin (alkane) hydrocarbons series. a.k.a. (marsh gas, CH4).

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Water d(-) .. .. SO2 Bent geometry H O d(+) Polar molecule

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Ethane H H H C C H H H C2H4 C = 1s22s22p2 ball-and-stick
Lewis dot notation C2H4 molecular formula space-filling molecule

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Ethane H H H C C H H H C2H6 ball-and-stick Lewis dot notation
molecular formula space-filling molecule

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Ethyne H C C H C H C H H C C H C2H2 No octet 6 electrons = triple bond
each C “feels” 6 electrons H C C H C H C H Stable octet C2H2 H C C H each C “feels” 7 carbons Ethyne – a.k.a. “acetylene”

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Dihydrogen monosulfide
.. .. SO2 H S Bent

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Carbon dioxide O C O O C O O C Linear geometry CO2

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Ammonia N 107o H .. .. N H N H N H H NH3 H Trigonal Pyramidal geometry

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: : : : Amino Acids – Functional Groups NH21- R- COOH NH21- NH3 NH41+
Amine Base Pair Carboxylic Acid NH21- R- COOH lose H+ H+ NH21- NH3 NH41+ : N H : 1+ : 1- N N : H H H H H amine ammonia ammonium ion

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Hydrogen monochloride
Cl H H Cl Cl HCl d(+) d(-) HCl(g) + H2O(l) HCl(aq) hydrogen chloride water hydrochloric acid Polar molecule

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Trichloromethane H H Cl C Cl Cl C Cl Cl Cl H C Cl d(+) CHCl3 d(-)
Tetrahedral geometry Polar molecule

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Urea H H H H N N O C O C N N H H H H CO(NH2)2 NOT “di-urea”
Urea – The first organic compound to be synthesized (Wohler, 1828).

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Propane H H H H H H C C C H C C C H H H H H H H H H C3H8

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Butane H H H H H C C C C H H H H H H H H H H – C – C – C – C – H

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Nitrogen triiodide N I I I .. N I NI3 Trigonal Pyramidal geometry
Video clip: (slow motion) detonation of NI3

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Supplies 15 black (carbon) 8 green (chlorine and iodine)
1 yellow (sulfur) 4 blue (oxygen) 4 red (nitrogen) 42 hydrogen (hydrogen) 67 bonds (bonds)

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C Cl I S N O H Cl H Cl C Cl H C H O C O Cl H S H H C C H H H Cl C Cl
CHCl3 HCl

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H H H H H H H H C C C C H H C C C H H H H H H H H N N I I H H H I

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Decomposition of Nitrogen Triiodide

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Decomposition of Nitrogen Triiodide
Molecules store energy (chemical potential energy) in the bonds that hold them together. When the bonds are broken, energy is released. 2 NI3(s) N2(g) I2(g)

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N H .. .. C H O .. H H .. O CH4, methane NH3, ammonia H2O, water O
lone pair electrons O O O3, ozone

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The VSEPR Model .. .. .. The Shapes of Some Simple ABn Molecules O S O
Linear Bent Trigonal planar Trigonal pyramidal AB6 F P F S F Cl Students often confuse electron-domain geometry with molecular geometry. You must stress that the molecular geometry is a consequence of the electron domain geometry. The best arrangement of a given number of electron domains is the one that minimizes the repulsions among them. F Xe T-shaped Square planar Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral Brown, LeMay, Bursten, Chemistry The Central Science, 2000, page 305

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