Polar and NonPolar Molecules: How To Tell If a Molecule is Polar or Nonpolar
Polar and NonPolar Molecules: How To Tell If a Molecule is Polar or Nonpolar

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Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories Chapter 9

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Molecular Shapes Section 9.1 Lewis structures only provide a 2-D representation of a molecule However, by including the bond angles of molecules, a more accurate 3-D representation can be achieved

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VSEPR Theory Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory states that the overall shape of a molecule is governed by the interactions of its electron clouds The electron clouds for a given molecule repel each other and must separated as best as possible to minimize this repulsive interaction

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The VSEPR Model Section 9.2 The electron domains included in the VSEPR model can be divided into two different categories: Bonding pairs Nonbonding (lone) pairs

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Electronic vs. Molecular Geometries The electronic geometry describes the shape of the electron clouds surrounding the central atom Regardless of whether they are lone pairs or bonding pairs The molecular geometry takes into consideration the effect of lone pairs but ignores their existence

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Electronic and Molecular Geometry

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Electronic and Molecular Geometry (cont.)

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Determining the Shape of a Molecule 1. Draw Lewis structure 2. Determine number of lone pairs and bonding pairs (electronic geometry) 3. Remove lone pairs and determine molecular geometry

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Examples Draw Lewis structures and determine both electronic and molecular geometries for the following molecules: H 2 O ClNO (N as central atom) CO 3 2- See Sample Exercise 9.1 (Pg. 347)

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Deviations from Ideal Bond Angles The bond angles listed for the electronic geometries are ideal values Several factors affect these ideal values Existence of lone pairs Large atoms Bond orders >1 Lone pairs of electrons and bond orders >1 have the most significant impact

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Geometries for Molecules w/ Expanded Octets Trigonal pyramidal and octahedral geometries have two geometrically distinct points: Equatorial Axial

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Examples Draw Lewis structures and predict electronic and molecular geometries for each molecule shown: BrF 5 XeF 4 ClF 3 See Sample Exercise 9.2 (Pg. 351)

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Shapes of Larger Molecules Molecular geometry can only be described with respect to a central atom Molecules containing more than one central atom therefore have a different geometry about each particular atom

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Bond Polarity (Revisited) Predict whether the following molecules are polar or nonpolar: CH 4 HCN H 2 O XeF 4 See Sample Exercise 9.4 (Pg. 354)

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Covalent Bonding and Orbital Overlap Section 9.4 We know that Lewis structures provide a qualitative approach at determining molecular shape and that Schrodinger’s quantum #’s give us the shapes of atomic orbitals These two concepts can be joined to form valence-bond theory

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Orbital Overlap (VSEPR Theory) Chemical bonds are simply represented with lines in a Lewis structure; however covalent bonds are formed from the overlap of atomic orbitals between two atoms

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Bond Length

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Hybrid Orbitals (Valence-Bond Theory) Section 9.5 Under valence-bond theory, the atomic orbitals used to create new chemical bonds mix together (hybridize) to create new hybrid orbitals Example: BeF 2

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sp Hybridization (Two bonds) The two new orbitals that are formed by mixing of the 2s and 2p orbitals are the hybrid orbitals This allows Be to interact with two F atoms instead of one

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Hybridization in BCl 3 (Three bonds) Hybridization of the 2s and two 2p orbitals leads to sp 2 hybridization:

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Hybridization in CCl 4 (Four bonds) Hybridization of the 2s and three 2p orbitals leads to sp 3 hybridization:

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Hybridization Involving d Orbitals Elements capable of having an expanded octet use the empty d orbitals to do so; therefore hybrid orbitals can be created using d orbitals as well: 5 electron clouds sp 3 d 6 electron clouds sp 3 d 2

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Summary # of electron clouds Electronic Geometry Hybrid Orbital Set Example 2LinearspBeH 2 3Trig. Planarsp 2 BCl 3 4Tetrahedralsp 3 NH 3 5 Trig. Bipyramidal sp 3 dPCl 5 6Octahedralsp 3 d 2 SF 6

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Examples Write the Lewis structure, predict electronic and molecular geometries, and identify the hybrid orbital set for each molecule shown below. SO 3 NH 4 + SF 4 PF 6 – See Sample Exercise 9.5 (Pg. 361)

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Multiple Bonds Section 9.6 All single bonds run along a line that passes through the nucleus of each atom and are known as sigma ( ) bonds A different bond forms when considering multiple bonds Involves side to side overlap of two p orbitals to form pi ( ) bonds

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Hybridization in Ethylene and Acetylene

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