# Matrix Algebra THE INVERSE OF A MATRIX © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Determinants – a \”quick\” computation to tell if a matrix is invertible
Determinants – a \”quick\” computation to tell if a matrix is invertible

1
Matrix Algebra THE INVERSE OF A MATRIX © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

2
MATRIX OPERATIONS An matrix A is said to be invertible if there is an matrix C such that and where , the identity matrix. In this case, C is an inverse of A. In fact, C is uniquely determined by A, because if B were another inverse of A, then . This unique inverse is denoted by , so that and © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

3
MATRIX OPERATIONS Theorem 4: Let . If , then A is invertible and
If , then A is not invertible. The quantity is called the determinant of A, and we write This theorem says that a matrix A is invertible if and only if det © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

4
MATRIX OPERATIONS Theorem 5: If A is an invertible matrix, then for each b in , the equation has the unique solution Proof: Take any b in A solution exists because if is substituted for x, then So is a solution. To prove that the solution is unique, show that if u is any solution, then u must be If , we can multiply both sides by and obtain , , and © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

5
MATRIX OPERATIONS Theorem 6:
If A is an invertible matrix, then is invertible and If A and B are invertible matrices, then so is AB, and the inverse of AB is the product of the inverses of A and B in the reverse order. That is, If A is an invertible matrix, then so is AT, and the inverse of AT is the transpose of That is, © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

6
MATRIX OPERATIONS Proof: To verify statement (a), find a matrix C such that and These equations are satisfied with A in place of C. Hence is invertible, and A is its inverse. Next, to prove statement (b), compute: A similar calculation shows that For statement (c), use Theorem 3(d), read from right to left, Similarly, © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

7
ELEMENTARY MATRICES Hence AT is invertible, and its inverse is .
The generalization of Theorem 6(b) is as follows: The product of invertible matrices is invertible, and the inverse is the product of their inverses in the reverse order. An invertible matrix A is row equivalent to an identity matrix, and we can find by watching the row reduction of A to I. An elementary matrix is one that is obtained by performing a single elementary row operation on an identity matrix. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

8
ELEMENTARY MATRICES Example 1: Let , , ,
Compute E1A, E2A, and E3A, and describe how these products can be obtained by elementary row operations on A. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

9
ELEMENTARY MATRICES Solution: Verify that , , .
, , . Addition of times row 1 of A to row 3 produces E1A. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

10
ELEMENTARY MATRICES An interchange of rows 1 and 2 of A produces E2A, and multiplication of row 3 of A by 5 produces E3A. Left-multiplication by E1 in Example 1 has the same effect on any matrix. Since , we see that E1 itself is produced by this same row operation on the identity. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

11
ELEMENTARY MATRICES Example 1 illustrates the following general fact about elementary matrices. If an elementary row operation is performed on an matrix A, the resulting matrix can be written as EA, where the matrix E is created by performing the same row operation on Im. Each elementary matrix E is invertible. The inverse of E is the elementary matrix of the same type that transforms E back into I. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

12
ELEMENTARY MATRICES Theorem 7: An matrix A is invertible if and only if A is row equivalent to In, and in this case, any sequence of elementary row operations that reduces A to In also transforms In into Proof: Suppose that A is invertible. Then, since the equation has a solution for each b (Theorem 5), A has a pivot position in every row. Because A is square, the n pivot positions must be on the diagonal, which implies that the reduced echelon form of A is In. That is, © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

13
ELEMENTARY MATRICES Now suppose, conversely, that .
Then, since each step of the row reduction of A corresponds to left-multiplication by an elementary matrix, there exist elementary matrices E1, …, Ep such that . That is, (1) Since the product Ep…E1 of invertible matrices is invertible, (1) leads to © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

14
ALGORITHM FOR FINDING Thus A is invertible, as it is the inverse of an invertible matrix (Theorem 6). Also, . Then , which says that results from applying E1, …, Ep successively to In. This is the same sequence in (1) that reduced A to In. Row reduce the augmented matrix If A is row equivalent to I, then is row equivalent to . Otherwise, A does not have an inverse. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

15
ALGORITHM FOR FINDING Example 2: Find the inverse of the matrix
, if it exists. Solution: © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

16
ALGORITHM FOR FINDING © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

17
ALGORITHM FOR FINDING Theorem 7 shows, since , that A is invertible, and . Now, check the final answer. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

18
ANOTHER VIEW OF MATRIX INVERSION
It is not necessary to check that since A is invertible. Denote the columns of In by e1,…,en. Then row reduction of to can be viewed as the simultaneous solution of the n systems , , …, (2) where the “augmented columns” of these systems have all been placed next to A to form . © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

19
ANOTHER VIEW OF MATRIX INVERSION
The equation and the definition of matrix multiplication show that the columns of are precisely the solutions of the systems in (2). © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Similar presentations