Low Job Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants in Canada: The Implication for Social Integration and Mental Well-Being

What is Social Integration?
What is Social Integration?

Low Job Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants in Canada: The Implication for Social Integration and Mental Well-Being



1. Introduction

2. Reasons for Low Job Market Integration

Individual-level factors;
Employer-level factors;
System-level factors;
Societal-level factors;

2.1. Individual-Level Factors

2.2. Employer-Level Factors

2.3. System-Level Factors

2.4. Societal-Level Factors

3. Low Job Market Integration and Low Social Integration

4. Low Social Integration and Mental Well-Being

5. Conclusions

Author Contributions


Institutional Review Board Statement

Informed Consent Statement

Data Availability Statement

Conflicts of Interest


  1. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). Facts and Figures 2007 Immigration Overview: Permanent Residents; Citizenship and Immigration Canada: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2008. Available online: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2007/01.asp (accessed on 21 January 2021).
  2. Somerville, K.; Walsworth, S. Vulnerabilities of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Canada and the United States. Am. Rev. Can.Stud. 2009, 39, 147–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Sidney, M. Settling in: A comparison of local immigrant organizations in the United States and Canada. Int. J. Can.Stud. 2014, 49, 105–133. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. Sakamoto, I.; Jeypal, D.; Bhuyan, R.; Ku, J.; Fang, L.; Zhang, H.; Genovese, F. An Overview of Discourses of Skilled Immigrants and “Canadian experience”: An English-Language Print Media Analysis; Working paper No. 98; CERIS—The Ontario Metropolis Centre: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  5. Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC). Facts and Figures 2014—Immigration Overview: Permanent Residents. 2015. Available online: https://open.canada.ca/data/en/dataset/2fbb56bd-eae7-4582-af7d-a197d185fc93 (accessed on 31 January 2021).
  6. IRCC. Strategy to Expand Transitions to Permanent Residency—Canada.Ca. Government of Canada. 2022. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/corporate/publications-manuals/motion-44-response.html (accessed on 4 February 2023).
  7. Fraser, S. 2022 Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration; Government of Canada: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2022. Available online: https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/documents/pdf/english/corporate/publications-manuals/annual-report-2022-en.pdf (accessed on 12 February 2022).
  8. Kaushik, V.; Drolet, J. Settlement and Integration Needs of Skilled Immigrants in Canada. Soc. Sci. 2018, 7, 76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  9. Picot, G. The deteriorating economic welfare of Canadian immigrants. Can. J. Urban Res. 2004, 13, 25–46. [Google Scholar]
  10. Picot, G.; Hou, F. The Rise in Low-Income Rates among Immigrants in Canada. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 11F0019MIE—No. 198. Ottawa. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series. 2003. Available online: http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/11F0019MIE/11F0019MIE2003198.pdf (accessed on 31 January 2021).
  11. Statistics Canada. Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: A Portrait of Early Settlement Experiences. 2005. Available online: http://publications.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/89-614-XIE/89-614-XIE2005001.pdf (accessed on 21 January 2021).
  12. Statistics Canada. The Canadian Immigrant Labour Market: Recent Trends from 2006 to 2017. 2018. Available online: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/71-606-x/71-606-x2018001-eng.htm (accessed on 5 February 2021).
  13. Statistics Canada. Data Tables, 2016 Census. 2016. Available online: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/dp-pd/dt-td/index-eng.cfm (accessed on 5 February 2021).
  14. Turin, T.C.; Chowdhury, N.; Ekpekurede, M.; Lake, D.; Lasker, M.A.A.; O’Brien, M.; Goopy, S. Professional Integration of Immigrant Medical Professionals through Alternative Career Pathways: An Internet Scan to Synthesize the Current Landscape. Hum. Resour. Health 2021, 19, 51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Turin, T.C.; Chowdhury, N.; Ekpekurede, M.; Lake, D.; Lasker, M.; O’Brien, M.; Goopy, S. Alternative Career Pathways for International Medical Graduates towards Job Market Integration: A Literature Review. Int. J. Med. Educ. 2021, 12, 45–63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  16. Blain, M.J.; Fortin, S.; Alvarez, F. Professional Journeys of International Medical Graduates in Quebec: Recognition, Uphill Battles, or Career Change. J. Int. Migr. Integr. 2017, 18, 223–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  17. Hou, F.; Lu, Y.; Schimmele, C. Recent Trends in Over-education by Immigration Status, Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, On, Canada, 11F0019M No. 436. Available online: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2019024-eng.htm (accessed on 15 March 2023).
  18. Atanackovic, J.; Bourgeault, I.L. The Employment and Recruitment of Immigrant Care Workers in Canada. Can. Public Policy 2013, 39, 335–350. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Elbayoumi, U. Identifying the Perceived Factors Affecting Career Transition Among International Pharmacy Graduates (IPGs) Who Are in the Process of Obtaining Their License in Ontario; University of Toronto: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2021. [Google Scholar]
  20. Terzian, H. A Guide for Foreign Trained Newcomer Architects: Identifying Barriers to Re-Licensure in Canada; University of Waterloo: Waterloo, ON, Canada, 2021. [Google Scholar]
  21. Turin, T.C.; Chowdhury, N.; Lake, D. Alternative Careers toward Job Market Integration: Barriers Faced by International Medical Graduates in Canada. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 2311. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  22. Ferrer, A.; Green, D.A.; Riddell, W.C. The effect of literacy on immigrant earnings. J. Hum. Resour. 2004, 41, 380–410. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Reitz, J.G. Warmth of the Welcome: The Social Causes of Economic Success for Immigrants in Different Nations and Cities; Westview: Boulder, CO, USA, 1998. [Google Scholar]
  24. Chen, C.; Smith, P.; Mustard, C. The Prevalence of Over-Qualification and Its Association with Health Status among Occupationally Active New Immigrants to Canada. Ethn. Health 2010, 15, 601–619. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  25. Schinkel, W. Against ‘Immigrant Integration’: For an End to Neocolonial Knowledge Production. Comp. Migr. Stud. 2018, 6, 31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
  26. Dauvergne, C. How the Charter Has Failed Non-Citizens in Canada: Reviewing Thirty Years of Supreme Court of Canada Jurisprudence. McGill Law J. 2013, 58, 663–728. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  27. Mooten, N. Racism, Discrimination and Migrant Workers in Canada: Evidence from the Literature Policy Research, Research and Evaluation Branch; Refugees and Citizenship Canada: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2021.
  28. Nestel, S. Colour Coded Health Care: The Impact of Race and Racism on Canadians’ Health; Wellesley Institute: Toronto, ON, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
  29. Houle, R. Changes in the Socioeconomic Situation of Canada’s Black Population, 2001 to 2016. Statistics Canada. 2020. Available online: https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/pub/89-657-x/89-657-x2020001-eng.htm (accessed on 15 January 2023).
  30. Banerjee, R.; Reitz, J.G.; Oreopoulos, P. Do Large Employers Treat Racial Minorities More Fairly? An Analysis of Canadian Field Experiment Data. Can. Public Policy 2018, 44, 1–12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  31. Banerjee, R.; Verma, A. Post-migration education among recent adult immigrants to Canada. J. Int. Migr. Integr. 2011, 13, 59–82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Reitz, J.G. Immigrant employment success in Canada, part I: Individual and contextual causes. J. Int. Migr. Integr. 2007, 8, 37–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Man, G. Gender, work and migration: Deskilling Chinese immigrant women in Canada. Women Stud. Int. Forum 2004, 27, 135–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Bloom, D.E.; Gilles, G.; Morley, G. The changing labor market position of Canadian immigrants. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working paper: 4672. Can. J. Econ. 1994, 28, 987–1005. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Hum, D.; Simpson, W. Economic integration of immigrants to Canada: A short survey. Can. J. Urban Res. 2004, 13, 46–61. [Google Scholar]
  36. Aydemir, A.; Skuterud, M. Explaining the deteriorating entry earnings of Canada’s immigration cohorts: 1966–2000. Can. J.Econ. 2005, 38, 641–671. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Tossutti, L.S. Literature Review: Integration Outcome Citizenship and Immigration; Welcoming Community Initiatives, Brock University: St. Catharines, ON, Canada,, 2021; pp. 1–45. [Google Scholar]
  38. Weiner, N. Breaking down barriers to labour market integration of newcomers in Toronto. IRPP Choices 2008, 14, 1–37. [Google Scholar]
  39. Government of Canada. Annual Report to Parliament on Immigration. 2017. Available online: https://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2017/ircc/Ci1-2017-eng.pdf (accessed on 15 February 2021).
  40. Murphy, J. The Settlement and Integration Needs of Immigrants: A Literature Review. The Ottawa Local Immigration Partnership. 2010. Available online: https://olipplio.ca/knowledge-base/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Olip-Review-of-Literature-Final-EN.pdf (accessed on 21 January 2021).
  41. Oreopoulos, P. Why Do Skilled Immigrants Struggle in the Labor Market? A Field Experiment with Thirteen Thousand Resumes. Econ. Policy 2011, 3, 148–171. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  42. Government of Canada. Consultations on the Settlement and Language Training Services Needs of Newcomers. 2006. Available online: http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2007/cic/Ci51-199-1-2006-1E.pdf (accessed on 15 February 2021).
  43. Derwing, T.M.; Waugh, E. Language Skills and the Social Integration of Canada’s Adult Immigrants. IRPP Study. 2012. Available online: http://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/research/diversity-immigrationand-integration/language-skills-and-the-social-integration-of-canadas-adult-immigrants/IRPP-Study-no31.pdf (accessed on 15 February 2021).
  44. Kaushik, V.; Christine, W.; Diana, H. Social integration of immigrants within the linguistically diverse workplace: A systematic review. Rev. Soc. Sci. 2016, 1, 15–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  45. Galiev, A.; Sepideh, M. Language Barriers to Integration: A Canadian Perspective. In Forum for Inter-American Research; EBSCO Industries, Inc.: Birmingham, AL, USA, 2012; Volume 5. [Google Scholar]
  46. Guo, Y. Racializing Immigrant Professionals in an Employment Preparation ESL Program. Cult. Pedagog. Inq. 2009, 1, 40–54. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  47. Rudenko, M. Canadian Experience’ and Other Barriers to Immigrants’ Labour Market Integration: Qualitative Evidence of Newcomers from the Former Soviet Union. Master’s Thesis and Dissertations, Paper 1676. Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2012. [Google Scholar]
  48. Petri, K. No Canadian Experience’ Barrier: A Participatory Approach to Examining the Barrier’s Effect on New Immigrants. New Immigrant Canadian Experience. Master’s Thesis, School of Communication & Culture, Royal Roads University, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2010. Available online: https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10170/363/Petri.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y (accessed on 15 February 2021).
  49. Alboim, N.; McIssaac, E. Making the connections: Ottawa’s role in immigrant employment. IRPP Choices 2007, 13, 1–24. [Google Scholar]
  50. Reitz, J.G. Tapping Immigrants’ Skills: New Directions for Canadian Immigration Policy in the Knowledge Economy. IRPP Choices 2005, 11, 409. [Google Scholar]
  51. Dietz, J.; Joshi, C.; Esses, V.M.; Hamilton, L.K.; Gabarrot, F. The skill paradox: Explaining and reducing employment discrimination against skilled immigrants. Int. J. Hum. Resour. Manag. 2015, 26, 1318–1334. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  52. Li, C.; Gervais, G.; Duval, A. The Dynamics of Overqualification: Canada’s Underemployed University Graduates; Statistics Canada, Income Statistics Division: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2006.
  53. Esses, V.M.; Dietz, J.; Bhardwaj, A. The role of prejudice in the discounting of immigrant skills. In Cultural Psychology of Immigrants; Mahalingam, R., Ed.; Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ, USA, 2006; pp. 113–130. [Google Scholar]
  54. Salaff, J.; Greve, A.; Ping LX, L. Paths into the economy: Structural barriers and the job hunt for skilled migrants in Canada. Int. J. Hum. Resour. 2002, 13, 450–464. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Desjardins, D.; Kirsten, C. Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes in Canada: The Benefits of Addressing Wage and Employment Gaps; Royal Bank of Canada: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2011. [Google Scholar]
  56. Houle, R.; Lahouaria, Y. Recognition of newcomers’ foreign credentials and work experience. Perspect. Labour Income 2010, 22, 18–33. [Google Scholar]
  57. Plante, J. Integration of Internationally Educated Immigrants into the Canadian Labour Market: Determinants of Success. (Catalogue No. 81-595-M–No. 094). 2011. Available online: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/81-595-m/81-595-m2011094-eng.pdf (accessed on 20 February 2021).
  58. Levitt, P. The Transnational Villagers; University of California Press: Berkeley, CA, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
  59. Goldberg, M.P. The Facts Are In! A Study of the Characteristics and Experiences of Immigrants Seeking Employment in Regulated Professions in Ontario; Queen’s Printer for Ontario (Ministry of Training, Colleges and Universities): Toronto, ON, Canada, 2002. [Google Scholar]
  60. George, U.; Chaze, F. Tell me what I need to know: South Asian women, social capital and settlement. J. Int. Migr. Integr. 2009, 10, 265–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. The Canadian Immigration Integration Project (CIIP) Pilot Final Evaluation Report. Kitchener: Centre for Community Based Research. 2010. Available online: http://www.newcomersuccess.ca/images/stories/reports/2010-november-final-evaluation-report.pdf (accessed on 20 February 2021).
  62. Jeans, H.; Hadley, F.; Green, J.; Da Prat, C. Navigating to Become a Nurse in Canada: Assessment of International Nurse Applicants; Canadian Nurses Association: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2005. [Google Scholar]
  63. Friedberg, R.M. You can’t take it with you? Immigrant assimilation and the portability of human capital. J. Labour Econ. 2000, 18, 221–251. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  64. Picot, G.; Sweetman, A. The Deteriorating Economic Welfare of Immigrants and Possible Causes; Statistics Canada, Analytical Studies Research Paper No. 262; Statistics Canada, Business and Labour Market Analysis Division: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2005.
  65. Nangia, P. Discrimination Experienced by Landed Immigrants in Canada; RCIS Work. Pap. No. 2013/7; Toronto Metropolitan University: Toronto, ON, Canada, 2013. [Google Scholar]
  66. Reitz, J.G. Immigrant Skill Utilization in the Canadian Labour Market: Implications of Human Capital Research. J. Int. Migr. Integr. Rev. L’integration Migr. Int. 2001, 2, 347–378. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  67. Guo, X. Deskilling and Devaluation of Chinese Immigrant Women in Ottawa; Faculty of Arts, University of Ottawa: Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2015. [Google Scholar]
  68. Goksel, G.U. Socio-Economic Integration of Skilled Immigrants in Canada. In Integration of Immigrants and the Theory of Recognition: “Just Integration”; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2017. [Google Scholar]
  69. Nakhaie, M.R. Ethno-racial origins, social capital and earnings. Int. Migr. Immigr. 2007, 8, 307–325. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Gauthier, C.-A. Obstacles to Socioeconomic Integration of Highly skilled Immigrant Women. Equal. Divers. Incl. Int. J. 2016, 35, 17–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Cruz-Saco, M.A. Promoting Social Integration: Economic, Social and Political Dimensions with a focus on Latin America. In Proceedings of the for the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Social Policy and Development, Helsinki, Finland, 8–10 July 2008. [Google Scholar]
  72. European Union. Settling in 2018: Indicators of Immigrant Integration © OECD; European Union: Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2018. [Google Scholar]
  73. Brydsten, A.; Rostila, M.; Dunlavy, A. Social integration and mental health—A decomposition approach to mental health inequalities between the foreign-born and native-born in Sweden. Int. J. Equity Health 2019, 18, 48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  74. Soroka, S.; Johnston, R.; Banting, K. Ties that bind. Social cohesion and diversity in Canada. In Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada; Banting, K., Courchene, T., Seidle, L., Eds.; Institute for Research on Public Policy: Montreal, QC, Canada, 2007; pp. 561–600. [Google Scholar]
  75. Lai, Y.; Hynie, M. Community Engagement and Well-Being of Immigrants: The Role of Knowledge. Can. Issues Association for Canadian Studies, Summer. 2010, pp. 93–97. Available online: https://www.proquest.com/docview/763168806?accountid=9838&parentSessionId=UKWNr%2FFp25IlnopXRVxnjmA2XS7EjLZlreY1yB4jh4w%3D&pq-origsite=primo (accessed on 15 March 2023).
  76. ICC. Ballots and Belongings: New Citizens on Political Participation; ICC Onsights, Study Reports; ICC: Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 2015.
  77. Centre for Research on Inclusion at Work (CRIW). Improving Immigrant Inclusion in The Workplace, Sprott School Business; Carleton University, Centre for Research on Inclusion at Work (CRIW): Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  78. Ferrer, A.; Riddell, W.C. Education, credentials, and immigrant earnings; Education, reconnaissance des acquis et revenus des immigrants. Can. J. Econ. Rev. Can. D’économique 2008, 41, 186–216. [Google Scholar]
  79. Reitz, J.G.; Banerjee, R. Racial Inequality, Social Cohesion and Policy Issues in Canada in Belonging? Diversity, Recognition and Shared Citizenship in Canada. 2014. Available online: https://irpp.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/reitz.pdf (accessed on 12 February 2022).
  80. MHCC. Immigrant, Refugee, Ethnocultural and Racialized Populations and the Social Determinants of Health: A Review of 2016 Census Data, Mental Health Commission of Canada; MHCC: Singapore, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  81. World Health Organization. Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging Evidence, Practice (Summary Report); World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland, 2004.
  82. Government of Canada. What Determines Health? 2020. Available online: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index-eng.php (accessed on 20 February 2021).
  83. World Health Organization. Determinants of Health; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2017.
  84. Davies, A.A.; Basten, A.; Frattini, C. Migration: A Social Determinant of the Health of Migrants; IOM Migration Health Department: Geneva, Switzerland, 2006. [Google Scholar]
  85. Bergeron, P.; Auger, N.; Hamel, D. Weight, general health and mental health: Status of diverse subgroups of immigrants in Canada. Can. J. Public Health Rev. Can. Sante Publique 2009, 100, 215–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Ng, E.; Omariba, W. Is There A Healthy Immigrant Effect in Mental Health? Evidence from Population-Based Health Surveys in Canada. Can. Issues. 2010, pp. 23–28. Available online: https://www.proquest.com/docview/763161575?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true (accessed on 20 February 2021).
  87. Ng, E. The Healthy Immigrant Effect and Mortality Rates. Health Rep. 2011, 22, C1. [Google Scholar]
  88. Meshefedjian, G.A.; Leaune, V.; Simoneau, M.È.; Drouin, M. Disparities in Lifestyle Habits and Health Related Factors of Montreal Immigrants: Is Immigration an Important Exposure Variable in Public Health? J. Immigr. Minor. Health 2014, 16, 790–797. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Vang, Z.M.; Sigouin, J.; Flenon, A.; Gagnon, A. Are Immigrants Healthier than Native-born Canadians? A Systematic Review of the Healthy Immigrant Effect in Canada. Ethn. Health 2017, 22, 209–241. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  90. Fang Mei, L.; Goldner Elliot, M. Transitioning into the Canadian Workplace: Challenges of Immigrants and its Effect on Mental Health. Can. J. Humanit. Soc. Sci. 2011, 2, 93–102. [Google Scholar]
  91. Simich, L.; Hamilton, H.; Baya, B.K. Mental distress, economic hardship and expectations of life in Canada among Sudanese newcomers. Transcult. Psychiatry 2006, 43, 418–444. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Chandrasena, R.; Beddage, V.; Fernando, M.L.D. Suicide among Immigrant Psychiatric Patients in Canada. Br. J. Psychiatry 1991, 159, 707–709. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  93. Nwalutu, F.I.; Nwalutu, M.O. Skilled Female New Canadians and Mental Health Challenges: Effect of Unemployment and Underemployment. In African Migrants and the Refugee Crisis; Abegunrin, O., Abidde, S.O., Eds.; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2021. [Google Scholar]
  94. Chadwick, K.A.; Collins, P.A. Examining the Relationship between Social Support Availability, Urban Center Size, and Self-perceived Mental Health of Recent Immigrants to Canada: A Mixed-methods Analysis. Soc. Sci. Med. 2015, 128, 220–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  95. Dean, J.A.; Wilson, K. Education? It is irrelevant to my job now. It makes me very depressed’: Exploring the health impacts of under/unemployment among highly skilled recent immigrants in Canada. Ethn. Health 2009, 14, 185–204. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  96. Gong, Z.; Sun, F.; Li, X. Perceived Overqualification, Emotional Exhaustion, and Creativity: A Moderated-Mediation Model Based on Effort-Reward Imbalance Theory. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 11367. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  97. Kim, I.H.; Noh, S. Changes in life satisfaction among Korean immigrants in Canada. Int. J. Cult. Ment. Health 2015, 8, 60–71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Taylor, D.M.; Usborne, E. When I know who “we” are, I can be “me”: The primary role of cultural identity clarity for psychological well-being. Transcult Psychiatry 2010, 47, 93–111. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  99. Srirangson, A.; Thavorn, K.; Moon, M.; Noh, S. Mental health problems in Thai immigrants in Toronto, Canada. Int. J. Cult. Ment. Health 2013, 6, 156–169. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  100. Kisely, S.; Terashima, M.; Langille, D. A population-based analysis of the health experience of African Nova Scotians. CMAJ 2008, 179, 653–658. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  101. Salami, B.; Hegadoren, K.; Bautista, L.; Ben-Shlomo, Y.; Diaz, E.; Rammohan, A.; Meherali, S. Mental Health of Immigrants and Non-Immigrants in Canada: Evidence from the Canadian Health Measures Survey and Service Provider Interviews in Alberta, Policy Wise for Children and Families, University of Alberta, Scientific Report. 2017. Available online: https://policywise.com/wp-content/uploads/resources/2017/04/2017-04APR-27-Scientific-Report-15SM-SalamiHegadoren.pdf (accessed on 15 March 2021).
  102. Gushulak, B.D.; MacPherson, D.W. Migration Medicine and Health: Principles and Practice; BC Decker: Hamilton, ON, Canada, 2006. [Google Scholar]
  103. Hassen, N.; Lofters, A.; Michael, S.; Mall, A.; Pinto, A.D.; Rackal, J. Implementing Anti-Racism Interventions in Healthcare Settings: A Scoping Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 2993. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  104. Bourgeault, I.L. BRAIN DRAIN, BRAIN GAIN AND BRAIN WASTE: Programs Aimed at Integrating and Retaining the Best and the Brightest in Health Care—ProQuest. Can. Issues. 2007. Available online: https://www.proquest.com/docview/208671007?pq-origsite=gscholar&fromopenview=true (accessed on 15 March 2021).
  105. Li, P.S. The Role of Foreign Credentials and Ethnic Ties in Immigrants’ Economic Performance. Can. J. Sociol. JSTOR 2008, 33, 291–310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  106. Herring, C. Does Diversity Pay?: Race, Gender, and the Business Case for Diversity. Am. Sociol. Rev. 2009, 74, 208–224. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
  107. Selvanandan, V.; Meagan, R. Improving Inclusion and Integration of Immigrants through a Voluntary Workplace Charter. Can. J. Public Health Rev. Can. St. Publique 2021, 112, 473. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

Share and Cite

Raihan, M.M.H.; Chowdhury, N.; Turin, T.C. Low Job Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants in Canada: The Implication for Social Integration and Mental Well-Being. Societies 2023, 13, 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13030075

Raihan MMH, Chowdhury N, Turin TC. Low Job Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants in Canada: The Implication for Social Integration and Mental Well-Being. Societies. 2023; 13(3):75. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13030075

Chicago/Turabian Style

Raihan, Mohammad M. H., Nashit Chowdhury, and Tanvir C. Turin. 2023. “Low Job Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants in Canada: The Implication for Social Integration and Mental Well-Being” Societies 13, no. 3: 75. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13030075

You are watching: Low Job Market Integration of Skilled Immigrants in Canada: The Implication for Social Integration and Mental Well-Being. Info created by THVinhTuy selection and synthesis along with other related topics.

Rate this post

Related Posts