Figure: UN Title: Lewis structure. Caption: CCl4.

Draw the Lewis structure for CCl4 What is the molecular geometry of this compound? Is the molecule
Draw the Lewis structure for CCl4 What is the molecular geometry of this compound? Is the molecule

Download presentation

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Published byMilton Hood Modified over 4 years ago

1
Figure: UN Title: Lewis structure. Caption: CCl4.

2
Figure: 09-01 Title: Tetrahedral geometry. Caption: (a) A tetrahedron is an object with four faces and four verticies. Each face is an equilateral triangle. (b) The geometry of the CCl4 molecule. Each C—Cl bond in the molecule points toward a vertex of a tetrahedron. All the C—Cl bonds are the same length, and all the Cl—C—Cl bond angles are the same. This type of drawing of CCl4 is called a ball-and-stick model. (c) A representation of CCl4, called a space-filling model. It shows the relative sizes of the atoms, but the geometry is somewhat harder to see.

3
Figure: 09-02 Title: Shapes of AB2 and AB3 molecules. Caption: Top: AB2 molecules can be either linear or bent. Bottom: Three possible shapes for AB3 molecules.

4
Figure: 09-03 Title: Shapes of ABn molecules. Caption: For molecules whose formula is of the general form ABn, there are five fundamental shapes.

5
Figure: 09-04 Title: Derivatives from the ABn geometries. Caption: Additional molecular shapes can be obtained by removing corner atoms from the basic geometries shown in Figure Here we begin with a tetrahedron and successively remove corners producing first a trigonal-pyramidal geometry and then a bent one, each having ideal bond angles of 109.5º. Molecular shape is meaningful only when there are at least three atoms. If there are only two, they must be arranged next to each other, and no special name is given to describe the molecule.

6
Figure: 09-05 Title: A balloon analogy for electron domains. Caption: Balloons tied together at their ends naturally adopt their lowest-energy arrangement.

7
Figure: UN Title: Lewis structure. Caption: NH3.

8
Figure: UN Title: Give it Some Thought. Caption: Resonance structure of an AB3 molecule.

9
Figure: UNT01a Title: Table 9.1 Caption: Electron-Domain Geometries as a Function of the Number of Electron Domains.

10
Figure: UNT01b Title: Table 9.1 Caption: Electron-Domain Geometries as a Function of the Number of Electron Domains.

11
Figure: 09-06 Title: The molecular geometry of NH3. Caption: The geometry is predicted by first drawing the Lewis structure, then using the VSEPR model to determine the electron-domain geometry, and finally focusing on the atoms themselves to describe the molecular geometry.

12
Figure: UNT02a Title: Table 9.2 Caption: Electron-Domain Geometries and Molecular Shapes for Molecules with Two, Three, and Four Electron Domains Around the Central Atom.

13
Figure: UNT02b Title: Table 9.2 Caption: Electron-Domain Geometries and Molecular Shapes for Molecules with Two, Three, and Four Electron Domains Around the Central Atom.

14
Figure: UNEx9.1 Title: Sample Exercise 9.1 Caption: Resonance structures.

15
Figure: UNEX9.1 Title: Sample Exercise 9.1 Caption: Models of O3.

16
Figure: UNEX9.1 Title: Sample Exercise 9.1 Caption: Lewis structure.

17
Figure: UNEX9.1 Title: Sample Exercise 9.1 Caption: Models of SnCl3–.

18
Figure: UN Title: Bond angles of CH4, NH3, and H2O. Caption: VSEPR models of methane, ammonia, and water.

19
Figure: 09-07 Title: Bonding and nonbonding electron pairs. Caption: Relative “sizes” of bonding and nonbonding pairs of electrons.

20
Figure: UN Title: Lewis structure. Caption: Cl2CO.

21
Figure: UN Title: Bond angles of Cl2CO. Caption: Structure of phosgene.

22
Figure: UN Title: Give it Some Thought. Caption: Lewis structure of the nitrate ion.

23
Figure: UNT03a Title: Table 9.3 Caption: Electron-Domain Geometries and Molecular Shapes for Molecules with Five and Six Electron Domains Around the Central Atom.

24
Figure: UNT03b Title: Table 9.3 Caption: Electron-Domain Geometries and Molecular Shapes for Molecules with Five and Six Electron Domains Around the Central Atom.

25
Figure: 09-08 Title: Trigonal-bipyramidal geometry. Caption: Five electron domains arrange themselves around a central atom as a trigonal bipyramid. The three equatorial electron domains define an equilateral triangle. The two axial domains lie above and below the plane of the triangle. If a molecule has nonbonding electron domains, they will occupy the equatorial positions.

26
Figure: 09-09 Title: An octahedron. Caption: The octahedron is an object with eight faces and six vertices. Each face is an equilateral triangle.

27
Figure: UNEx9.2 Title: Sample Exercise 9.2 Caption: Lewis structure.

28
Figure: UNEx9.2 Title: Sample Exercise 9.2 Caption: Orbital and molecular models of SF4.

29
Figure: UNEx.2 Title: Sample Exercise 9.2 Caption: Lewis structure.

30
Figure: UNEx9.2 Title: Sample Exercise 9.2 Caption: Square pyramidal arrangement of atoms.

31
Figure: UN Title: Acetic acid. Caption: Lewis structure of acetic acid.

32
Figure: UN Title: Acetic acid geometry. Caption: Predicted geometry of the interior atoms of acetic acid.

33
Figure: 09-10 Title: Representations of acetic acid. Caption: Ball-and-stick (top) and space-filling (bottom) representations of acetic acid, HC2H3O2.

34
Figure: UNEx9.3 Title: Sample Exercise 9.3 Caption: Lewis structure.

35
Figure: UN Title: Practice Exercise Caption: Chemical structure of propyne.

36
Figure: 09-11 Title: CO2, a nonpolar molecule. Caption: (a) The overall dipole moment of a molecule is the sum of its bond dipoles. In CO2 the bond dipoles are equal in magnitude, but exactly oppose each other. The overall dipole moment is zero, therefore, making the molecule nonpolar. (b) The electron-density model shows that the regions of higher electron density (red) are at the ends of the molecule while the region of lower electron density (blue) is at the center.

37
Figure: 09-12 Title: Dipole moment of a bent molecule. Caption: In H2O the bond dipoles are equal in magnitude, but do not exactly oppose each other. The molecule has a nonzero dipole moment overall, making the molecule polar. The electron-density model shows that one end of the molecule has more electron density (the oxygen end) while the other end has less electron density (the hydrogens).

38
Figure: 09-13 Title: Molecules containing polar bonds. Caption: Two of these molecules have a zero dipole moment because their bond dipoles cancel one another, while the other molecules are polar.

39
Figure: UNEx9.4 Title: Sample Exercise 9.4 Caption: Polarity of Br—Cl.

40
Figure: UNEx9.4 Title: Sample Exercise 9.4 Caption: Resonance structures of SO2.

41
Figure: UNEx9.4 Title: Sample Exercise 9.4 Caption: Bent geometry of the SO2 molecule.

42
Figure: UNEx9.4 Title: Sample Exercise 9.4 Caption: Structure of SF6.

43
Figure: 09-14 Title: The overlap of orbitals to form covalent bonds. Caption: (a) The bond in H2 results from the overlap of two 1s orbitals from two H atoms. (b) The bond in HCl results from the overlap of a 1s orbital of H and one of the lobes of a 3p orbital of Cl. (c) The bond in Cl2 results from the overlap of two 3p orbitals from two Cl atoms.

44
Figure: 09-15 Title: Formation of the H2 molecule. Caption: Plot of the change in potential energy as two hydrogen atoms come together to form the H2 molecule. The minimum in the energy, at 0.74 Å, represents the equilibrium bond distance. The energy at that point, -436 kJ/mol, corresponds to the energy change for the formation of the H—H bond.

45
Figure: UN Title: Ground-state orbital diagram. Caption: Be atom.

46
Figure: UN Title: Orbital diagram. Caption: Be atom.

47
Figure: 09-16 Title: Formation of sp hybrid orbitals. Caption: One s orbital and one p orbital can hybridize to form two equivalent sp hybrid orbitals. The two hybrid orbitals have their large lobes pointing in opposite directions, 180º apart.

48
Figure: UN Title: Orbital diagram for hybrid orbitals. Caption: Formation of sp hybrid orbitals.

49
Figure: 09-17 Title: Formation of two equivalent Be—F bonds in BeF2. Caption: Each sp hybrid orbital on Be overlaps with a 2p orbital on F to form a bond. The two bonds are equivalent to each other and form an angle of 180º.

50
Figure: UN Title: Orbital diagrams showing hybridization. Caption: Formation of sp2 hybrid orbitals.

51
Figure: 09-18 Title: Formation of sp2 hybrid orbitals. Caption: One s orbital and two p orbitals can hybridize to form three equivalent sp2 hybrid orbitals. The large lobes of the hybrid orbitals point toward the corners of an equilateral triangle.

52
Figure: UN Title: Orbital diagram. Caption: sp3 Hybrid orbital formation.

53
Figure: 09-19 Title: Formation of sp3 hybrid orbitals. Caption: One s orbital and three equivalent p orbitals can hybridize to form four equivalent sp3 hybrid orbitals. The large lobes of the hybrid orbitals point toward the corners of a tetrahedron.

54
Figure: 09-20 Title: Valence-bond description of H2O. Caption: The bonding in H2O can be envisioned as sp3 hybridization of the orbitals on O. Two of the four hybrid orbitals overlap with 1s orbitals of H to form covalent bonds. The other two hybrid orbitals are occupied by nonbonding pairs of electrons.

55
Figure: UN Title: Orbital diagram. Caption: Formation of sp3d hybrid orbitals.

56
Figure: UNT04a Title: Table 9.4 Caption: Geometric Arrangements Characteristic of Hybrid Orbital Sets.

57
Figure: UNT04b Title: Table 9.4 Caption: Geometric Arrangements Characteristic of Hybrid Orbital Sets.

58
Figure: 09-21 Title: Bonding in NH3. Caption: The hybrid orbitals used by N in the NH3 molecule are predicted by first drawing the Lewis structure, then using the VSEPR model to determine the electron-domain geometry, and then specifying the hybrid orbitals that correspond to that geometry. This is essentially the same procedure as that used to determine molecular structure (Figure 9.6), except the final focus is on the orbitals used to make two-electron bonds and to hold nonbonding pairs.

59
Figure: UN Title: Sample Exercise 9.5 Caption: Lewis structure for NH2–.

60
Figure: 09-22 Title: Formation of a bond. Caption: When two p orbitals overlap in a sideways fashion, the result is a bond. Note that the two regions of overlap constitute a single bond.

61
Figure: UN Title: Lewis structures. Caption: Examples of a single, double, and triple bond.

62
Figure: 09-23 Title: The molecular geometry of ethylene. Caption: Ethylene, C2H4, has one C—C s bond and one C—C bond.

63
Figure: UN Title: Orbital diagram. Caption: Hybridization of carbon.

Similar presentations

© 2023 SlidePlayer.com Inc.
All rights reserved.

You are watching: Figure: UN Title: Lewis structure. Caption: CCl4.. Info created by THVinhTuy selection and synthesis along with other related topics.

Rate this post

Related Posts