Draw the orbit structure of Ethyne

Orbital Overlap Diagram of Ethyne – Acetylene
Orbital Overlap Diagram of Ethyne – Acetylene

Which orbital is non directional?

They are non directional because they are spherical in shape and probability of finding electrons at a particular distance from the nucleus is same in all directions.

Draw the orbit structure of Ethyne

Now, one 2s and one 2p orbitals undergo sp hybridization to form two sp hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy and identical shape and size which take linear geometry with bond angle 180º. Unhybridized 2py and 2pz orbitals remain perpendicular to hybrid orbitals. One half filled sp hybrid orbital of carbon atom overlaps with half-filled sp orbital of another carbon atom forming carbon to carbon sigma bond. The remaining half filled sp orbitals of each carbon overlaps with half-filled 1s orbital of two hydrogen atoms forming two carbons to hydrogen sigma bonds. Unhybridized and half-filled 2py and 2pz orbitals of one carbon overlap with respective orbitals of another carbon laterally forming two carbon to carbon pi bonds.

In benzene molecule, carbon and carbon bond can’t have polarity because there is not any electronegativity difference and the carbon hydrogen is also not much polar because the electronegativity difference is almost zero and also the small pull due to small difference in Electronegativity is balanced due to even pull from all directions.

In chlorobenzene the electronegativity difference between carbon and chlorine is very high so, it is polar.

(to compare polarity first check electronegativity…

Compounds with hydrogen bonding tend to have higher melting and boiling points because the hydrogen bonding leads to stronger intermolecular forces. Intermolecular forces are the attractive forces between molecules, and they affect the physical properties of a substance, including melting and boiling points.

Hydrogen bonding is a particularly strong type of intermolecular force that occurs when a hydrogen atom is bonded to a highly electronegative atom such as nitrogen, oxygen, or fluorine….

Carbon has two half-filled orbitals in ground state (1s2, 2s2, 2px12py1, 2pz0). It has four half-filled orbitals in excited state since one electron is promoted from 2s to empty 2p orbital during chemical combination (1s2, 2s2, 2px12py1, 2pz0)

Now one 2s and three 2p orbitals undergo sp3 hybridization to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy and identical shape and size which takes tetrahedral geometry with bond angle 109.28º.

Each half filled sp3hybrid orbital of carbon atom…

Each carbon has four half-filled orbitals in excited state since one electron is promoted from 2s to empty 2p orbital during chemical combination. Now, one 2s and three 2p orbitals undergo sp3 hybridization to form four sp3 hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy and identical shape which take tetrahedral geometry with bond angle 109.28.

One half filled sp3 hybrid orbital of one carbon atom overlaps with half-filled sp3 orbital of another carbon atom head-to-head forming a carbon-to-carbon sigma…

Each carbon has two half-filled orbitals in ground state (1s2, 2s2, 2px12py1,2pz0). It has four half-filled orbitals in excited state since one electron is promoted from 2s to empty 2p orbital during chemical combination (1s2, 2s2, 2px12py1,2pz0).

Now, one 2s and two 2p orbitals undergo sp2hybridization to form three sp2hybrid orbitals of equivalent energy and identical shape and size which take trigonal planar geometry with bond angle 120º. Unhybridized 2pz half-filled orbital remains…

Atoms of elements other than noble gas have unstable electronic configuration (outermost shell is incomplete). They can lose, gain or share electrons and are chemically active.
The tendency of atoms of various elements to acquire stable configuration of the nearest noble gasis the cause of chemical combination.

The postulates of Electronic Valence Theory are:

a) Electronic theory of valency: It is a theory explaining the combining capacity of an element based on the number of electrons present in the valence (outermost or ultimate) shell of an atom of an element.

b) Core electrons: All the electrons present in other than the ultimate shell of an atom of an element are called core electrons.

c) Octet rule: An octet rule is defined as a general rule according to which elements tend to have eight electrons in their valence shell in order to attain a…

NaCl is ionic compounds so it is soluble in polar solvent. Water is a polar solvents, therefore, it can rupture the ionic bond between positive (Na+)and negative ( Cl-) ions of the NaCl as a result of ion- dipole interaction. In other words, the ions of the NaCl gets hydrated.

The attractive force which binds oppositely charged ions acts equally in all directions in case of the ionic compounds. Therefore, ionic compounds are non- directional in nature.

Following are the conditions for electrovalency:

Following are some of the properties of Electrovalent compounds:

Ionic compounds are formed by the transfer of electrons between two atoms that creates charge in them. The compounds are held together by strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions. These compounds have high melting points and high boiling pointsbecause of the large amounts of energy needed to break the many strong bonds.

At the molecular level, salt dissolves in water due to the fact that both water and salt compounds are polar, with positive and negative charges on opposite sides in the molecule.

The positively-charged side of the water molecules are attracted to the negatively-charged chloride ions and the negatively-charged side of the water molecules are attracted to the positively-charged sodium ions.

Also, ionic bonds are non directional in nature since they are arranged in a lattice structure where every…

Sodium Chloride conducts electricity due to free ions. In solid state, the ions are strongly bonded to the oppositely charged ions to form compact molecules, probhibiting their free movement. However, in molten state, these ions are free to move and can easily conduct electricity.

Covalent bond is defined as the bond existing between two atoms formed by the mutual sharing of electrons by the both atoms.

Covalency is the meausre of number of valence electrons that can be actively shared by an atom in forming a covalent bond.

The conditions for forming a covalent bond are as follows:

Covalent compouns are linked together by covalent force of attraction due to which there exists less force of attraction between the binding molecules. As a result, less energy is required to break this bond. As a result, they have low melting and boiling point.

Covalent bonds are directional in nature because they are formed due to the overlapping of orbitals of two or more atoms that arrange each other in a way to maintain minimum repulsion and ensure maximum stability.

Coordinate covalent bond: A bond formed containing both coordinate and covalent bond is defined as coordinate covalent bond.

Coordinate covalent compound: A compound possesing both coordinate and covalent bond is defined as coordinate covalent compound.

Coordinate bond:A bond formed when an electron-rich atom donates one or more lone pair of electrons to the acceptor atom is defined as coordinate bond. In this type of bond, there is no mutual sharing of electrons. The atom which gives electrons…

The formal charge of an atom isthe difference between the number of valence electrons of that atom in the free state and the number of electrons given to that element in Lewis structure.

It is given by

Ammonium sulfate

Resonance isa way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by a single Lewis formula.

A molecule or ion with such delocalized electrons is represented by several resonance structures. Resonance structures represent different ways of placing electrons on the atoms in a molecule’s Lewis dot structure.

It is possible to write more than one equivalent resonance structure for a molecule or ion,the actual structure is the…

The VSEPR theory explains that the approximate shape of the molecule can be predicted from the number of electron pairs in the valence shell of the central atom.

The postulates of the VSEPR theory are listed below:

Wolfgang Pauli in 1925, put forward a principle that restrict some of the values of quantum numbers of electrons in an atom. Pauli’s exclusion principle states,” no two electrons in an atom can all the four quantum numbers same.” In other word if three of the quantum numbers for two electrons in an atom are identical, the fourth quantum number for the two electrons should differ.

Heitler and London in 1927 developed valence bond theory based on quantum mechanical model of an atom. According to…

Hybridization is defined as the process of formation of degenerate hybrid orbitals by the inter-mixing of atomic orbitals of comparable energy levels. This concept was introduced to strengthen the Valence Bond Theory.

Following are the types of hybridization:

sp hybridization:

In this hybridization, one s-orbital and one p-orbital combine together to form two sp hybrid orbitals. Each hybrid orbital has 50% s-character and 50% p-character.

sp2 hybridization:

In this hybridization, one s-orbital and…

Sigma bond is stronger than Pi bond.

Following are the major differences between pi bond and sigma bond:

Sigma Bond Pi Bond
It is formed due to the head-on overlapping of combining orbitals. It is formed due to the lateral or sideways overlapping of combining orbitals.
It is stronger than pi bond. It is weaker than sigma bond.
Sigma bond can form independently. Pi bond is formed only after the formation of sigma bond.
Free rotation is possible.

Free rotation is not possible.

Bond length is defined as the average distance between the nuclei of two bonded atoms in a molecule.

Bolnd length depends upon the Electronegativity difference of combining atoms, Atomic size of combining atoms, Nature of Hybridization and Type of bond.

Dipole moment is the product of magnitude of the charge (q) and the distance between the centre (d) of the charges is called dipole moment.

It is usually denoted byμ.

The factors affecting dipole moment are:

Intermolecular forces, often abbreviated to IMF, arethe attractive and repulsive forces that arise between the molecules of a substance. These forces mediate the interactions between individual molecules of a substance.

Van der Waals bondis weak intermolecular forces that are dependent on the distance between atoms or molecules.
It is the attraction between instantaneous dipole and induced dipole.

When the constituent particles of a solid are molecules, they are called molecular solids.

They are held together by either:

Hydrogen bond is the bond that exists between a hydrogen of a molecule (which is bonded with a strong electronegative atom) with another highly electronegative atom.

It may be between within a molecule, molecules of same species, or molecules of different species.

Types of hydrogen bonds are:

– Intermolecular…

The simultaneous electrostatic attraction between rhe kernels and the mobile electrons which holds the kernels together is called metallic bond.

It is a weak bond.

Electrons here are delocalized.

It causes metals to display the following characteristics.

1. Electrical Conductivity

2. Thermal conductivity

3. Luster

4. Malleable and ductile

Water has a higher boiling point than HF, even though HF is more polar thanH2O. This is because in HF, each molecule can be hydrogen bonded to two othsrs wherease in water, each molecule can be hydrogen bonded to four others. Therefore, even though HF forms some what stronger bond than water. The total strength of two hudrogen bonds to a water molecule exceeds the total strength of two hydrogen bondsin an HF molecule.

Hybridization may be defined as the phenomenon of combining of orbitals of an atom of nearly equal energies, giving rise to entirely new orbitals equal in number to the mixing orbitals having same energy and identical shapes.

By valence bond theory, only half filled orbitals can take part in bonding.

Hybridization was introducedto explain molecular structure when the valence bond theory failed to correctly predict them.

Taking example of a CH4molecule,

without hybridization concept, the orbitals…

Resonance isa way of describing delocalized electrons within certain molecules or polyatomic ions where the bonding cannot be expressed by a single Lewis formula. A molecule or ion with such delocalized electrons is represented by several resonance structures.

When it is possible to write more than one equivalent resonance structure for a molecule or ion,the actual structure is the average of the resonance structures.Butresonance structures represent different ways of placing electrons on the…

It is due to inter-molecular hydrogen bond.

Nitrogen present in ammonia is capable of forming hydrogen bonding with neighboring ammonia molecules which increases their intermolecular force of attraction. As a result, higher amount of heat energy needs to be supplied to break this bond. So, it has a higher boiling point.

However, hydrogen bonding cannot be imagined in Phosphine.

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