CHAPTER 9 Molecular Structure & Covalent Bonding Theories.

CF4 Molecular Geometry, Bond Angles \u0026 Electron Geometry (Carbon Tetrafluoride)
CF4 Molecular Geometry, Bond Angles \u0026 Electron Geometry (Carbon Tetrafluoride)

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CHAPTER 9 Molecular Structure & Covalent Bonding Theories

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Chapter Goals A Preview of the Chapter
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory Polar Molecules:The Influence of Molecular Geometry Valence Bond (VB) Theory Molecular Shapes and Bonding

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Chapter Goals Linear Electronic Geometry: AB2 Species
Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB2U2 Species Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry – ABU3 Species Trigonal Bipyramidal Geometry Octahedral Geometry Compounds Containing Double Bonds Compounds Containing Triple Bonds A Summary of Electronic and Molecular Geometries

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Stereochemistry Stereochemistry is the study of the three dimensional shapes of molecules. Some questions to examine in this chapter are: Why are we interested in shapes? What role does molecular shape play in life? How do we determine molecular shapes? How do we predict molecular shapes?

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Two Simple Theories of Covalent Bonding
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory Commonly designated as VSEPR Principal originator R. J. Gillespie in the 1950’s Valence Bond Theory Involves the use of hybridized atomic orbitals L. Pauling in the 1930’s & 40’s

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Overview of Chapter The same basic approach will be used in every example of molecular structure prediction: Draw the correct Lewis dot structure. Identify the central atom. Designate the bonding pairs and lone pairs of electrons on central atom. Count the regions of high electron density on the central atom. Include both bonding and lone pairs in the counting.

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Overview of Chapter Determine the electronic geometry around the central atom. VSEPR is a guide to the geometry. Determine the molecular geometry around the central atom. Ignore the lone pairs of electrons. Adjust molecular geometry for effect of any lone pairs.

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Overview of Chapter Determine the hybrid orbitals on central atom.
Repeat procedure if there is more than one central atom in molecule. Determine molecular polarity from entire molecular geometry using electronegativity differences.

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VSEPR Theory Regions of high electron density around the central atom are arranged as far apart as possible to minimize repulsions. There are five basic molecular shapes based on the number of regions of high electron density around the central atom.

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VSEPR Theory Two regions of high electron density around the central atom.

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VSEPR Theory Three regions of high electron density around the central atom.

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VSEPR Theory Four regions of high electron density around the central atom.

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VSEPR Theory Five regions of high electron density around the central atom.

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VSEPR Theory Six regions of high electron density around the central atom.

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VSEPR Theory Frequently, we will describe two geometries for each molecule. Electronic geometry is determined by the locations of regions of high electron density around the central atom(s). Molecular geometry determined by the arrangement of atoms around the central atom(s). Electron pairs are not used in the molecular geometry determination just the positions of the atoms in the molecule are used.

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VSEPR Theory An example of a molecule that has the same electronic and molecular geometries is methane – CH4. Electronic and molecular geometries are tetrahedral.

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VSEPR Theory An example of a molecule that has different electronic and molecular geometries is water – H2O. Electronic geometry is tetrahedral. Molecular geometry is bent or angular.

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VSEPR Theory Lone pairs of electrons (unshared pairs) require more volume than shared pairs. Consequently, there is an ordering of repulsions of electrons around central atom. Criteria for the ordering of the repulsions:

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VSEPR Theory Lone pair to lone pair is the strongest repulsion.
Lone pair to bonding pair is intermediate repulsion. Bonding pair to bonding pair is weakest repulsion. Mnemonic for repulsion strengths lp/lp > lp/bp > bp/bp Lone pair to lone pair repulsion is why bond angles in water are less than 109.5o.

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Polar Molecules: The Influence of Molecular Geometry
Molecular geometry affects molecular polarity. Due to the effect of the bond dipoles and how they either cancel or reinforce each other. A B A A B A linear molecule nonpolar angular molecule polar

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Polar Molecules: The Influence of Molecular Geometry
Polar Molecules must meet two requirements: One polar bond or one lone pair of electrons on central atom. Neither bonds nor lone pairs can be symmetrically arranged that their polarities cancel. (Recall these from previous chapter)

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Valence Bond (VB) Theory
Covalent bonds are formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals. Atomic orbitals on the central atom can mix and exchange their character with other atoms in a molecule. Process is called hybridization. Hybrids are common: Pink flowers Mules Hybrid Orbitals have the same shapes as predicted by VSEPR.

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Valence Bond (VB) Theory
Regions of High Electron Density Electronic Geometry Hybridization 2 Linear sp 3 Trigonal planar sp2 4 Tetrahedral sp3 5 Trigonal bipyramidal sp3d 6 Octahedral sp3d2

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Molecular Shapes and Bonding
In the next sections we will use the following terminology: A = central atom B = bonding pairs around central atom U = lone pairs around central atom For example: AB3U designates that there are 3 bonding pairs and 1 lone pair around the central atom.

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Linear Electronic Geometry:AB2 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Some examples of molecules with this geometry are: BeCl2, BeBr2, BeI2, HgCl2, CdCl2 All of these examples are linear, nonpolar molecules. Important exceptions occur when the two substituents are not the same! Be-Cl-Br or Be-I-Br will be linear and polar!

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Linear Electronic Geometry:AB2 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Electronic Structures Lewis Formulas 1s 2s 2p Be 3s p Cl [Ne]

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Linear Electronic Geometry:AB2 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Dot Formula Electronic Geometry

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Linear Electronic Geometry:AB2 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Molecular Geometry Polarity

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Linear Electronic Geometry:AB2 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) 1s 2s 2p Be 1s sp hybrid 2p 3s p Cl [Ne]

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Linear Electronic Geometry:AB2 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)

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Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Some examples of molecules with this geometry are: BF3, BCl3 All of these examples are trigonal planar, nonpolar molecules. Important exceptions occur when the three substituents are not the same! BF2Cl or BCI2Br will be trigonal planar and polar!

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Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Electronic Structures Lewis Formulas 1s 2s 2p B 3s p Cl [Ne]

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Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Dot Formula Electronic Geometry

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Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Polarity Molecular Geometry

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Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) 1s 2s 2p B 1s sp2 hybrid 3s p Cl [Ne]

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Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)

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Trigonal Planar Electronic Geometry: AB3 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Some examples of molecules with this geometry are: CH4, CF4, CCl4, SiH4, SiF4 All of these examples are tetrahedral, nonpolar molecules. Important exceptions occur when the four substituents are not the same! CF3Cl or CH2CI2 will be tetrahedral and polar!

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Electronic Structures Lewis Formulas 2s p C [He] 1s H

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Dot Formula Electronic Geometry

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Molecular Geometry Polarity

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) four sp3 hybrid orbitals C [He] 2s p C [He] 1s H

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB4 Species (No Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)

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Example of Molecules with More Than One Central Atom Alkanes CnH2n+2
Alkanes are hydrocarbons with the general formula CnH2n+2. CH4 – methane C2H6 or (H3C-CH3) – ethane C3H8 or (H3C-CH2-CH3) – propane The C atoms are located at the center of a tetrahedron. Each alkane is a chain of interlocking tetrahedra. Sufficient H atoms to form a total of four bonds for each C.

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Example of Molecules with More Than One Central Atom Alkanes CnH2n+2

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species (One Lone Pair of Electrons on A)
Some examples of molecules with this geometry are: NH3, NF3, PH3, PCl3, AsH3 These molecules are our first examples of central atoms with lone pairs of electrons. Thus, the electronic and molecular geometries are different. All three substituents are the same but molecule is polar. NH3 and NF3 are trigonal pyramidal, polar molecules.

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species (One Lone Pair of Electrons on A)
Lewis Formulas Electronic Structures 2s p N [He] 2s p F [He] 1s H

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species (One Lone Pair of Electrons on A)
Dot Formulas Electronic Geometry

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species (One Lone Pair of Electrons on A)
Molecular Geometry Polarity

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB3U Species (One Lone Pair of Electrons on A)
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) four sp3 hybrids Þ ¯ 2s p N [He] ¯

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB2U2 Species (Two Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Some examples of molecules with this geometry are: H2O, OF2, H2S These molecules are our first examples of central atoms with two lone pairs of electrons. Thus, the electronic and molecular geometries are different. Both substituents are the same but molecule is polar. Molecules are angular, bent, or V-shaped and polar.

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB2U2 Species (Two Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Lewis Formulas Electronic Structures 2s p O [He] 1s H

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB2U2 Species (Two Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Molecular Geometry Polarity

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: AB2U2 Species (Two Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) 2s p O [He] ¯ ¯ four sp3 hybrids Þ ¯ ¯

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: ABU3 Species (Three Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Some examples of molecules with this geometry are: HF, HCl, HBr, HI, FCl, IBr These molecules are examples of central atoms with three lone pairs of electrons. Again, the electronic and molecular geometries are different. Molecules are linear and polar when the two atoms are different. Cl2, Br2, I2 are nonpolar.

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: ABU3 Species (Three Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Dot Formula Electronic Geometry

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: ABU3 Species (Three Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Polarity HF is a polar molecule. Molecular Geometry

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Tetrahedral Electronic Geometry: ABU3 Species (Three Lone Pairs of Electrons on A)
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) 2s p F [He] ¯ ¯ four sp3 hybrids Þ ¯ ¯

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
Some examples of molecules with this geometry are: PF5, AsF5, PCl5, etc. These molecules are examples of central atoms with five bonding pairs of electrons. The electronic and molecular geometries are the same. Molecules are trigonal bipyramidal and nonpolar when all five substituents are the same. If the five substituents are not the same polar molecules can result, AsF4Cl is an example.

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
Electronic Structures Lewis Formulas 4s p As [Ar] 3d10 2s p F [He]

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
Dot Formula Electronic Geometry

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
Polarity Molecular Geometry

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) 4s p 4d As [Ar] 3d10 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ß five sp3 d hybrids d ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
If lone pairs are incorporated into the trigonal bipyramidal structure, there are three possible new shapes. One lone pair – Seesaw shape Two lone pairs – T-shape Three lone pairs – linear The lone pairs occupy equatorial positions because they are 120o from two bonding pairs and 90o from the other two bonding pairs. Results in decreased repulsions compared to lone pair in axial position.

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
AB4U molecules have: trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry seesaw shaped molecular geometry and are polar One example of an AB4U molecule is SF4 Hybridization of S atom is sp3d.

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
Molecular Geometry

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
AB3U2 molecules have: trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry T-shaped molecular geometry and are polar One example of an AB3U2 molecule is IF3 Hybridization of I atom is sp3d.

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
Molecular Geometry

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
AB2U3 molecules have: trigonal bipyramid electronic geometry linear molecular geometry and are nonpolar One example of an AB2U3 molecule is XeF2 Hybridization of Xe atom is sp3d.

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Trigonal Bipyramidal Electronic Geometry: AB5, AB4U, AB3U2, and AB2U3
Molecular Geometry

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
Some examples of molecules with this geometry are: SF6, SeF6, SCl6, etc. These molecules are examples of central atoms with six bonding pairs of electrons. Molecules are octahedral and nonpolar when all six substituents are the same. If the six substituents are not the same polar molecules can result, SF5Cl is an example.

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
Electronic Structures Lewis Formulas 4s p Se [Ar] 3d10 s p F [He]

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
Polarity Molecular Geometry

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) 4s p d Se [Ar] 3d10 __ __ __ __ __ ß six sp3 d2 hybrids d __ __ __

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
If lone pairs are incorporated into the octahedral structure, there are two possible new shapes. One lone pair – square pyramidal Two lone pairs – square planar The lone pairs occupy axial positions because they are 90o from four bonding pairs. Results in decreased repulsions compared to lone pairs in equatorial positions.

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
AB5U molecules have: octahedral electronic geometry Square pyramidal molecular geometry and are polar. One example of an AB5U molecule is IF5 Hybridization of I atom is sp3d2.

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
Molecular Geometry

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
AB4U2 molecules have: octahedral electronic geometry square planar molecular geometry and are nonpolar. One example of an AB4U2 molecule is XeF4 Hybridization of Xe atom is sp3d2.

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Octahedral Electronic Geometry: AB6, AB5U, and AB4U2
Polarity Molecular Geometry

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
Ethene or ethylene, C2H4, is the simplest organic compound containing a double bond. Lewis dot formula N = 2(8) + 4(2) = 24 A = 2(4) + 4(1) = 12 S = 12 Compound must have a double bond to obey octet rule.

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
Lewis Dot Formula

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
VSEPR Theory suggests that the C atoms are at center of trigonal planes.

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
VSEPR Theory suggests that the C atoms are at center of trigonal planes. H H C C H H

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) C atom has four electrons. Three electrons from each C atom are in sp2 hybrids (1 for C-C, 2 for C-H bonds) . One electron in each C atom remains in an unhybridized p orbital 2s 2p three sp2 hybrids 2p C Þ

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
An sp2 hybridized C atom has this shape. Remember there will be one electron in each of the three lobes. Top view of an sp2 hybrid

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
The single 2p orbital is perpendicular to the trigonal planar sp2 lobes. The fourth electron is in the p orbital. Side view of sp2 hybrid with p orbital included.

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
Two sp2 hybridized C atoms plus p orbitals in proper orientation to form C=C double bond.

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
The portion of the double bond formed from the head-on overlap of the sp2 hybrids is designated as a s bond.

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
The other portion of the double bond, resulting from the side-on overlap of the p orbitals, is designated as a p bond.

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Compounds Containing Double Bonds
Thus a C=C bond looks like this and is made of two parts, one and one bond.

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Compounds Containing Triple Bonds
Ethyne or acetylene, C2H2, is the simplest triple bond containing organic compound. Lewis Dot Formula N = 2(8) + 2(2) = 20 A = 2(4) + 2(1) =10 S = 10 Compound must have a triple bond to obey octet rule.

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Compounds Containing Triple Bonds
Lewis Dot Formula VSEPR Theory suggests regions of high electron density are 180o apart. H C C H

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Compounds Containing Triple Bonds
Valence Bond Theory (Hybridization) Carbon has 4 electrons. Two of the electrons are in sp hybrids. Two electrons remain in unhybridized p orbitals. 2s 2p two sp hybrids 2p C [He] Þ

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Compounds Containing Triple Bonds
A bond results from the head-on overlap of two sp hybrid orbitals.

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Compounds Containing Triple Bonds
The unhybridized p orbitals form two p bonds. Note that a triple bond consists of one and two p bonds.

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Compounds Containing Triple Bonds
The final result is a bond that looks like this.

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Summary of Electronic & Molecular Geometries

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Synthesis Question The basic shapes that we have discussed in Chapter 8 are present in essentially all molecules. Shown below is the chemical structure of vitamin B6 phosphate. What is the shape and hybridization of each of the indicated atoms in vitamin B6 phosphate?

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Synthesis Question

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Group Question Shown below is the structure of penicillin-G. What is the shape and hybridization of each of the indicated atoms in penicillin-G?

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End of Chapter 8

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