# Chapter 9 Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

I3- Lewis Structure – How to Draw the Lewis Structure for I3-
I3- Lewis Structure – How to Draw the Lewis Structure for I3-

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Chapter 9 Bonding II: Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

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Preview The VSEPR model
Molecular geometry (going from two-dimensional “Lewis structure” to three-dimensional “VSEPR model” shapes) Polarity Valence bond theory Hybridization of atomic orbitals Molecular orbital (MO) theory MO energy diagram Delocalization of orbitals

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ABx Molecular Geometry In Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion model.
Chapter Section 1 Molecular Geometry In Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion model. It helps to determine the molecular structure and geometry in 3-D in the space. Even though it is not as precise as other models, the VSERP model is a simple, extremely useful model. The VSEPR model deals with molecules of the general type: where the central atom A is surrounded by x of B atoms, and x can take values from 2 to 6. ABx

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ABx Ey Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 1 Molecular Geometry The VSEPR model is based on the assumption that: Bonding and nonbonding electron pairs in the valence shell are positioned around the central atom such that electron-pair repulsions are minimized. A central atom can be surrounded by: Bonding pairs (B) Can be single, double or triple bonds Lone pairs (E) Electron domains ABx Ey where the number of electron domains = x + y

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Counting Electron Domains
Chapter Section 1 Counting Electron Domains A central atom can be surrounded by: Bonding pairs (B) Can be single, double or triple bonds Lone pairs (E) Electron domains C F Cl Be O C Total # of electron domains 2 4 2

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Counting Electron Domains
Chapter Section 1 Counting Electron Domains A central atom can be surrounded by: Bonding pairs (B) Can be single, double or triple bonds Lone pairs (E) Electron domains P F H N Total # of electron domains 4 5

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Arrangement of Electron Domains around the Central Atom
Chapter Section 1 Arrangement of Electron Domains around the Central Atom Number of Electron Domains Electron-Domain Geometry 2 Linear 3 Trigonal planar The repulsion of electron pairs is minimized 4 Tetrahedral

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Arrangement of Electron Domains around the Central Atom
Chapter Section 1 Arrangement of Electron Domains around the Central Atom Number of Electron Domains Electron-Domain Geometry 5 Trigonal bipyramidal The repulsion of electron pairs is minimized 6 Octahedral

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Steps of Determining Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 1 Steps of Determining Molecular Geometry Draw the molecule’s Lewis structure. Count the number of electron domains on the central atom. Determine the electron-domain geometry. Determine the molecular geometry. Lewis structure Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry

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Molecular Geometry Linear Trigonal planar AB2 Cl Be Cl AB3 180º 180º
Lewis structure Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry Chapter Section 1 Molecular Geometry 180º 180º AB2 Cl Be Cl Linear 120º 120º AB3 Trigonal planar

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Molecular Geometry Square planar?? Tetrahedral
Lewis structure Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry Chapter Section 1 Molecular Geometry Is there another possible orientation that can further minimize the repulsion between the four electron domains around the C atom?? C F 90º AB4 Square planar?? 109.5º F 109.5º C F F Tetrahedral F

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Molecular Geometry PCl5 SF6 AB5 AB6 Lewis structure Electron-domain
Chapter Section 1 Molecular Geometry PCl5 AB5 SF6 AB6

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Molecular Geometry for ABx Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Molecular Geometry for ABx Molecules Octahedral Trigonal bipyramidal

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Molecular Geometry for ABx Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Molecular Geometry for ABx Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular AB2 2 linear AB3 3 trigonal planar AB4 4 tetrahedral AB5 5 trigonal bipyramidal AB6 6 Octahedral

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Other Subclasses of Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Other Subclasses of Molecules Main Class Other subclasses # lone pairs on central atom # bonding Total # of electron domains AB2 None – – – AB3 AB2E 1 2 3 AB4 AB3E 1 3 4 AB2E2 2 2 4 AB5 AB4E 1 4 5 AB3E2 2 3 5 AB2E3 3 2 5 AB6 AB5E 1 5 6 AB4E2 2 4 6

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AB2E Class Molecules SO2 Molecular geometry is V-shaped or bent
Lewis structure Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry Chapter Section 1 AB2E Class Molecules SO2 Molecular geometry is V-shaped or bent Arrangement of the electron domains is trigonal planar. Electron bonding pairs O AB2E S Electron lone pair O

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The Geometry of AB3 Class Molecules
Chapter Section 1 The Geometry of AB3 Class Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry Trigonal planar Trigonal planar AB3 3 Trigonal planar V-shaped / bent AB2E 2 1

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Molecular geometry is Trigonal Pyramid
Chapter Section 1 AB3E Class Molecules NH3 N H Arrangement of the electron domains is tetrahedral. Molecular geometry is Trigonal Pyramid

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Molecular geometry is V-shaped or bent
Chapter Section 1 AB2E2 Class Molecules H2O H O H Arrangement of the electron domains is again tetrahedral. Molecular geometry is V-shaped or bent

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Geometry AB3 and AB4 Class Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Geometry AB3 and AB4 Class Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry Trigonal planar Trigonal planar AB3 3 Trigonal planar V-shaped / bent AB2E 2 1 AB4 4 tetrahedral tetrahedral trigonal pyramidal AB3E 3 1 tetrahedral V-shaped / bent AB2E2 2 2 tetrahedral

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Geometry of Subclasses of AB5 Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Subclasses of AB5 Molecules Class AB5 PCl5 AB4E AB3E2 AB2E3

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Geometry of Subclasses of AB5 Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Subclasses of AB5 Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry AB5 5 Trigonal bipyramidal Trigonal bipyramidal AB4E 4 1 See-saw

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Geometry of Subclasses of AB5 Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Subclasses of AB5 Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry AB5 5 Trigonal bipyramidal Trigonal bipyramidal AB4E 4 1 See-saw Trigonal bipyramidal AB3E2 3 2 T-shaped Cl F

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Geometry of Subclasses of AB5 Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Subclasses of AB5 Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry AB5 5 Trigonal bipyramidal Trigonal bipyramidal AB4E 4 1 See-saw Trigonal bipyramidal AB3E2 3 2 T-shaped Trigonal bipyramidal AB2E3 2 3 Linear

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Geometry of Subclasses of AB6 Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Subclasses of AB6 Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry AB6 6 Octahedral

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Geometry of Subclasses of AB6 Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Subclasses of AB6 Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry AB6 6 Octahedral Square pyramidal AB5E 5 1 Octahedral

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Geometry of Subclasses of AB6 Molecules
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Subclasses of AB6 Molecules Class # of atoms bonded to central atom # lone pairs on central atom Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry AB6 6 Octahedral Square pyramidal AB5E 5 1 Octahedral Square planar AB4E2 4 2 Octahedral

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Geometry of Molecules with Lone Pairs on the Central Atom: a Summary
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Molecules with Lone Pairs on the Central Atom: a Summary E E E2

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Geometry of Molecules with Lone Pairs on the Central Atom: a Summary
Chapter Section 1 Geometry of Molecules with Lone Pairs on the Central Atom: a Summary E E2 E E3 E E E2 E2

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Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles
Chapter Section 1 Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles Bond angles in methane, ammonia, and water molecules. Lone pairs require more space than bonding pairs and tend to slightly squeeze the angles between the bonding pairs.

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Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles
Chapter Section 1 Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles (a) For a bonding pair in a molecules, the electrons are attracted towards two nuclei. (b) For a lone pair, it is localized on only one nucleus and occupies more space around the nucleus.

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Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles
Chapter Section 1 Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles < Bonding-pair nonbonding-pair repulsion increases

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Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles
Chapter Section 1 Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles Multiple bonds (double and triple) repel more strongly than single bonds because they have more electron density. The order of deviation from ideal angles is: single bond triple double lone pair < Repulsion increases

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Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles
Chapter Section 1 Deviation from Ideal Bond Angles single bond triple double lone pair < Repulsion increases

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Examples: SO2 A double bond should be counted as one electron domain.
Lewis structure Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry Chapter Section 1 Examples: SO2 A double bond should be counted as one electron domain. Electron-domain geometry: trigonal planar. Class : AB2E Molecular geometry: Bent or V-shaped.

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Lewis structure Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry Chapter Section 1 Examples: I3– Extra valence electrons, if any, must go to the central atom. (I3–) Electron-domain geometry: trigonal bipyramidal. Class: AB2E3 (21+1)e– – 4e– = 18e– I – Linear

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Examples: CO32– Lewis structure
Electron-domain geometry Molecular geometry Chapter Section 1 Examples: CO32– Lewis structure There are 3 electron domains on the central atom. Electron-domain geometry: trigonal planar Class: AB3 Molecular geometry: trigonal planar 2- C O

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Molecules with More Than One Central Atom
Chapter Section 1 Molecules with More Than One Central Atom CH3OH C O H AB4 AB2E2

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Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 2 Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry When the correct geometry is obtained for a given molecule, the polarity of that molecule can be predicted. – H – F Bond dipoles are vectors and therefore are additive.

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Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 2 Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry Bond dipoles are vectors and therefore are additive. Only the bonding pairs of electrons play a role in determining the polarity of a molecule. dipole moment > 0 H2O molecule is polar H2O CO2 molecule is not polar CO2 dipole moment = 0

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Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 2 Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry BF3 BF3 molecule is not polar

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Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 2 Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry CCl4 CCl4 molecule is also not polar

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Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 2 Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry CHCl3 CHCl3 molecule is polar

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Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 2 Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry Which one of the following two C2H2Cl2 geometries is polar? polar not polar

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Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry
Chapter Section 2 Predicting Polarity from Molecular Geometry Which one of the following geometries are polar? not polar polar polar

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Chapter Section 1 and 2 Exercises

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Chapter Section 3 Valence Bond Theory Do you still remember the shapes of atomic orbitals? 1s and 2s orbitals. 2p and 3p orbitals.

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Chapter Section 3 Valence Bond Theory Valence bond theory explains the differences in the properties of various covalent bonds. Although Lewis model is useful, but it can’t account for different bond lengths and bond strengths of different molecules.

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Chapter Section 3 Valence Bond Theory According to valence bond theory , atoms form a covalent bond when an atomic orbital on one atom overlaps with an atomic orbital of another atom. Each atomic orbital must have: a single, an unpaired electron. Furthermore, the two electrons in the two atomic orbitals must have opposite spins. H(1s1) + H(1s1) H–H

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Chapter Section 3 Valence Bond Theory According to valence bond theory , atoms form a covalent bond when an atomic orbital on one atom overlaps with an atomic orbital of another atom. F(1s22s22p5) + F(1s22s22p5) F–F

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Chapter Section 3 Valence Bond Theory According to valence bond theory , atoms form a covalent bond when an atomic orbital on one atom overlaps with an atomic orbital of another atom. H(1s1) + F(1s22s22p5) H–F

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Chapter Section 3 Valence Bond Theory According to quantum mechanics (Chapter 6), the size, shape and energy of 1s and 2p orbitals are different. Therefore, the bonds in H2, F2 and HF vary in strength and length. H2 F2 HF

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Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
Chapter Section 4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Can you apply valence bond theory to the CO2 molecule? From VSEPR model, CO2 is linear (AB2 class). Unoccupied p orbital From the C atom electron configuration, there are two singly occupied p orbitals. Valence bond theory doesn’t work in this case!

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Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
Chapter Section 4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Can you apply valence bond theory to the BeCl2 molecule? From VSEPR model, BeCl2 is again linear (AB2 class). Moreover, experimental observations show that both Be-Cl bonds are identical. There are two electron domains on the central atom Be Cl Hybridization “mixing of atomic orbitals” helps much in understanding many experimental observations that couldn’t be explained with valence bond theory. The Be atom doesn’t have singly occupied atomic orbitals, so the valence bond theory can’t be applied in this case!

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Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
Chapter Section 4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals No unpaired electrons Electron is promoted from 2s to 2p orbitals Now Be has two singly occupied atomic orbitals and can form two bonds Excited Be atom But one problem is still there!

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Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
Chapter Section 4 Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals Although the Be atom can now form two bonds, but from the above diagram those two bonds are different. Experiment, however, shows that the two Be-Cl bonds are identical! Thus, some extra treatments should be done!

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sp Hybridization Recall that :
Chapter Section 4 sp Hybridization Recall that : Orbital shapes (boundary surfaces) are pictorial representations of wave functions. Wave functions are mathematical functions. Mathematical functions can be combined. Thus, the atomic orbitals on an atom mix themselves in order to form new hybrid orbitals that are identical in shape, energy, and size. Non-hybrid orbitals

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Chapter Section 4 sp Hybridization Non-hybrid orbitals Before hybridization After hybridization The new two sp orbitals are identical in shape, size and energy.

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Chapter Section 4 sp Hybridization Be* The two sp orbitals, each with one electron, point in opposite directions inline with one another. This results in an angle of 180°.

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Chapter Section 4 sp Hybridization + Be* BeCl2 2Cl Each hybrid sp orbital overlaps with a 3p singly occupied atomic orbital and the angle formed is 180°. Hybridization accounts very well for the linear geometry of BeCl2.

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There are three electron domains on the central atom
Chapter Section 4 sp2 Hybridization There are three electron domains on the central atom VSEPR Let’s try the same approach with BF3. trigonal planar all bonds equivalent only 1 unpaired electron available, while 3 bonds are there! Electrons promotion two types of overlap with 2s and 2p. So hybridization is required.

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Chapter Section 4 sp2 Hybridization The next step is hybridizing “mixing” the 2s orbital and 2p orbitals. The new three hybrid sp2 orbitals are identical in shape, size and energy.

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Chapter Section 4 sp2 Hybridization The new three hybrid sp2 orbitals are identical in shape, size and energy and are 120° apart from each other.

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Chapter Section 4 sp2 Hybridization The three hybrid sp2 orbitals facilitate the trigonal planar geometry. There are still one p unhybrid orbital not involved in the bonding process.

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sp2 Hybridization 3F + B BF3 All bond angles 120o 2s2 2p5
Chapter Section 4 sp2 Hybridization 3F 2s2 2p5 B + BF3 All bond angles 120o

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There are four electron domains on the central atom
Chapter Section 4 sp3 Hybridization Same kind of analysis can be applied for C atom in the methane molecule (CH4). How many hybrid orbitals do you need for the C atom in CH4? There are four electron domains on the central atom CH4 has a tetrahedral shape and all bonds are equivalent.

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Chapter Section 4 sp3 Hybridization Electrons promotion The new hybrid sp3 orbitals are identical in their shape, size and energy. They adopt tetrahedral geometry and make 109° angle with respect to each other.

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Chapter Section 4 sp3 Hybridization The new hybrid sp3 orbitals are identical in their shape, size and energy. They adopt tetrahedral geometry and make 109° angle with respect to each other.

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sp3 Hybridization 4H + C CH4 1s1 All bond angles 109.5o
Chapter Section 4 sp3 Hybridization 4H + C CH4 1s1 All bond angles 109.5o

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sp , sp2 and sp3 Hybridizations
Chapter Section 4 sp , sp2 and sp3 Hybridizations

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There are five electron domains on the central atom
Chapter Section 4 sp3d Hybridization sp3d hybrid orbitals are used by atoms with expanded octet. Bond angles 120o and 90o and geometry is trigonal bipyramidal There are five electron domains on the central atom

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There are six electron domains on the central atom
Chapter Section 4 sp3d2 Hybridization S F sp3d2 hybrid orbitals are also used by atoms with expanded octet. There are six electron domains on the central atom

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Chapter Section 4 sp3d2 Hybridization The sp3d2 hybrid orbitals on the S atom adopt 90° angles and a geometry that is octahedral..

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sp , sp2 , sp3, sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridizations
Chapter Section 4 sp , sp2 , sp3, sp3d and sp3d2 Hybridizations In order to predict the correct hybridization for a given atom : Draw correct Lewis structure. Determine the number of electron domains on the central atom. Use the table to predict the appropriate hybridization and geometry

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Chapter Section 4 Exercises Predict the hybridizations of the central atom in the following molecules: Ammonia (NH3) KrF4 BrCl3

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds C = – H # electron domains = 3 Required hybridization is sp2 Ethylene

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds Hybrid orbitals of C atom in ethylene C = – H Ethylene 3 sigma “σ” bonds Head-to-head bonding 1 pi “π” bond Sideways bonding

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds A pi (π) bond forms from the sideway overlap of non-hybrid p orbitals resulting in regions of electron density that are concentrated above and below the plane of the molecule. “sideways” overlap. Double bond = 1 bond bond Triple bond = 1 bond bonds pi (π) bonds are not as strong as sigma (σ) bonds.

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds A sigma (σ) bond is a bond in which the shared electron density is concentrated directly along the internuclear axis between the two nuclei involved in bonding. “head-to-head” overlap.

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds H – C C – H # electron domains = 2 Required hybridization is sp Acetylene

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds Hybrid orbitals of C atom in acetylene H – C C – H Acetylene Formation of a C-C single bond

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds Hybrid orbitals of C atom in acetylene H – C C – H Acetylene 2 sigma “σ” bonds Head-to-head bonding 2 pi “π” bonds Sideways bonding

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds H – C – H O # electron domains = 3 Required hybridization is sp2 C # electron domains = 3 Required hybridization is sp2 O Formaldehyde C O

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Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds
Chapter Section 5 Hybridization in Molecules Containing Multiple Bonds H – C – H O Formaldehyde O C

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Exercises H O C 7 σ-bonds and 1 π-bond.
Chapter Section 5 Exercises How many sigma (σ) and pi (π) bonds are in acetic acid? 7 σ-bonds and 1 π-bond. C H O

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Chapter Section 5 Exercises How many pi bonds and sigma bonds are in each of the following molecules? Describe the hybridization of each C atom? (a) (b) (c) sp2 sp2 sp3 sp2 sp3 sp2 sp sp (a) 4 sigma bonds (b) 5 sigma bonds, 1 pi bond (c) 10 sigma bonds, 3 pi bonds

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