Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e1 Objectives for Section 10.7 Marginal Analysis The student will be able to compute: ■ Marginal cost, revenue.

Marginal Cost, Marginal Revenue, and Marginal Profit
Marginal Cost, Marginal Revenue, and Marginal Profit

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e1 Objectives for Section 10.7 Marginal Analysis The student will be able to compute: ■ Marginal cost, revenue and profit ■ Marginal average cost, revenue and profit ■ The student will be able to solve applications

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e2 Marginal Cost Remember that marginal refers to an instantaneous rate of change, that is, a derivative. Definition: If x is the number of units of a product produced in some time interval, then Total cost = C(x) Marginal cost = C’(x)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e3 Marginal Revenue and Marginal Profit Definition: If x is the number of units of a product sold in some time interval, then Total revenue = R(x) Marginal revenue = R’(x) If x is the number of units of a product produced and sold in some time interval, then Total profit = P(x) = R(x) – C(x) Marginal profit = P’(x) = R’(x) – C’(x)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e4 Marginal Cost and Exact Cost Assume C(x) is the total cost of producing x items. Then the exact cost of producing the (x + 1)st item is C(x + 1) – C(x). The marginal cost is an approximation of the exact cost. C’(x) ≈ C(x + 1) – C(x). Similar statements are true for revenue and profit.

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e5 Example 1 The total cost of producing x electric guitars is C(x) = 1,000 + 100x – 0.25x 2. 1.Find the exact cost of producing the 51 st guitar. 2.Use the marginal cost to approximate the cost of producing the 51 st guitar.

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e6 Example 1 (continued) The total cost of producing x electric guitars is C(x) = 1,000 + 100x – 0.25x 2. 1.Find the exact cost of producing the 51 st guitar. The exact cost is C(x + 1) – C(x). C(51) – C(50) = 5,449.75 – 5375 = $74.75. 2.Use the marginal cost to approximate the cost of producing the 51 st guitar. The marginal cost is C’(x) = 100 – 0.5x C’(50) = $75.

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e7 Marginal Average Cost Definition: If x is the number of units of a product produced in some time interval, then Average cost per unit = Marginal average cost =

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e8 If x is the number of units of a product sold in some time interval, then Average revenue per unit = Marginal average revenue = If x is the number of units of a product produced and sold in some time interval, then Average profit per unit = Marginal average profit = Marginal Average Revenue Marginal Average Profit

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e9 Warning! To calculate the marginal averages you must calculate the average first (divide by x), and then the derivative. If you change this order you will get no useful economic interpretations. STOP

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e10 Example 2 The total cost of printing x dictionaries is C(x) = 20,000 + 10x 1. Find the average cost per unit if 1,000 dictionaries are produced.

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e11 Example 2 (continued) The total cost of printing x dictionaries is C(x) = 20,000 + 10x 1. Find the average cost per unit if 1,000 dictionaries are produced. = $30

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e12 Example 2 (continued) 2.Find the marginal average cost at a production level of 1,000 dictionaries, and interpret the results.

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e13 Example 2 (continued) 2.Find the marginal average cost at a production level of 1,000 dictionaries, and interpret the results. Marginal average cost = This means that if you raise production from 1,000 to 1,001 dictionaries, the price per book will fall approximately 2 cents.

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e14 Example 2 (continued) 3. Use the results from above to estimate the average cost per dictionary if 1,001 dictionaries are produced.

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e15 Example 2 (continued) 3. Use the results from above to estimate the average cost per dictionary if 1,001 dictionaries are produced. Average cost for 1000 dictionaries = $30.00 Marginal average cost = – 0.02 The average cost per dictionary for 1001 dictionaries would be the average for 1000, plus the marginal average cost, or $30.00 + $(- 0.02) = $29.98

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e16 The price-demand equation and the cost function for the production of television sets are given by where x is the number of sets that can be sold at a price of $p per set, and C(x) is the total cost of producing x sets. 1. Find the marginal cost. Example 3

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e17 The price-demand equation and the cost function for the production of television sets are given by where x is the number of sets that can be sold at a price of $p per set, and C(x) is the total cost of producing x sets. 1. Find the marginal cost. Solution: The marginal cost is C’(x) = $30. Example 3 (continued)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e18 2.Find the revenue function in terms of x. Example 3 (continued)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e19 2.Find the revenue function in terms of x. The revenue function is 3. Find the marginal revenue. Example 3 (continued)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e20 2.Find the revenue function in terms of x. The revenue function is 3. Find the marginal revenue. The marginal revenue is 4.Find R’(1500) and interpret the results. Example 3 (continued)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e21 2.Find the revenue function in terms of x. The revenue function is 3. Find the marginal revenue. The marginal revenue is 4.Find R’(1500) and interpret the results. At a production rate of 1,500, each additional set increases revenue by approximately $200. Example 3 (continued)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e22 Example 3 (continued) 5. Graph the cost function and the revenue function on the same coordinate. Find the break-even point. 0 < y < 700,000 0 < x < 9,000

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e23 Example 3 (continued) 5. Graph the cost function and the revenue function on the same coordinate. Find the break-even point. 0 < y < 700,000 0 < x < 9,000 (600,168,000) (7500, 375,000) Solution: There are two break-even points. C(x)C(x) R(x)R(x)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e24 6.Find the profit function in terms of x. Example 3 (continued)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e25 6.Find the profit function in terms of x. The profit is revenue minus cost, so 7.Find the marginal profit. Example 3 (continued)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e26 6.Find the profit function in terms of x. The profit is revenue minus cost, so 7.Find the marginal profit. 8. Find P’(1500) and interpret the results. Example 3 (continued)

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Barnett/Ziegler/Byleen Business Calculus 11e27 6.Find the profit function in terms of x. The profit is revenue minus cost, so 7.Find the marginal profit. 8. Find P’(1500) and interpret the results. At a production level of 1500 sets, profit is increasing at a rate of about $170 per set. Example 3 (continued)

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