A Level GCE Shapes of molecules Appendix shapes of oxyanions KS5 AS A2 revision notes

Bond angle, molecular geometry of NO3- (nitrate ion) , by Khushboo yadav
Bond angle, molecular geometry of NO3- (nitrate ion) , by Khushboo yadav

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Brown’s Advanced A Level Chemistry

Theoretical
Physical Chemistry Revision
Notes

The shapes of Molecules and Ions
and bond angles
related to their Electronic Structure

Part 2 Some other molecules and ions of carbon,
nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine

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All by structure
and chemical bonding revision notes

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A
description, explanation, shapes
and bond angles of the carbonate ion, nitrate(III) ion (nitrite ion),
nitrate(V) ion (nitrate ion), nitrogen(IV) oxide (nitrogen dioxide),
nitronium ion, sulfur(IV) oxide (sulphur dioxide), sulfur(VI) oxide
(sulphur dioxide), sulfate(IV) ion (sulphate ion), sulfur(VI) ion
(sulphate ion), chlorate(III) ion, ClO2- (chlorite ion), chlorate(V) ion, ClO3- (chlorate ion)
and the chlorate(VII) ion, ClO4- (perchlorate
ion) are all described and discussed.

SHAPES OF MOLECULES INDEX:
two other pages

Introduction – theory – lots of inorganic
molecule/ion examples

shapes and bond
angles of organic molecules

Molecule shapes, dot and cross
diagrams, bond angles for selected molecules and ions of nitrogen,
sulfur and chlorine using the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion
model (VSEPR) and the dot and cross (ox) diagrams are presented in
‘Lewis style’ The ‘scribbles’ will be replaced by
neat diagrams eventually!

Carbon
in Group
4/14

  • Carbonate ion,
    CO32- is trigonal planar in shape with a O-C-O
    bond angle of 120o because of three groups of bonding
    electrons and no lone pairs of electrons.
  • The shape is deduced below
    using dot and cross diagrams and VSEPR theory and illustrated below.
  • Note that all the C-O bonds are identical due
    to delocalisation of some of the electrons (σ
    sigma and π pi bonding)

selected molecule/ion shapes based on carbon

valence bond dot and cross diagram for the carbonate
ion

2.
Nitrogen
in Group 5/15

  • Nitrogen(IV)
    oxide, NO2 (nitrogen dioxide) is bent shaped
    (angular), O-N-O bond angle ~120o because of two
    bonding groups of bonding electrons and a single lone electron in
    the same plane as the bonding pairs of electrons.
  • The nitrate(III) ion,
    NO2- (nitrite
    ion) is bent shaped (angular), O-N-O bond angle ~120o
    due to two groups of bonding electrons and one lone pair of
    electrons.
  • The nitrate(V) ion, NO3- (nitrate ion)
    is trigonal planar, O-N-O bond angle 120o due to three
    bonding groups of electrons and no lone pairs of electrons.
  • The nitronium ion, NO2+,
    is linear, O-N-O bond angle of 180o because there are two
    groups of bonding electrons and no lone pairs of electrons (you
    easily see this from the NO2 neutral molecule diagram
    below).
  • The shapes are deduced below
    using dot and cross diagrams and VSEPR theory and illustrated below.

valence bond dot and cross diagrams for nitrogen
oxides and nitrogen oxyanions

  • Note that all the N-O bonds within the
    molecule or ion are identical due to delocalisation of some of the
    electrons (σ sigma and π
    pi bonding)

Sulfur
in Group 6/16

  • Sulfur(IV)
    oxide, SO2 (sulphur dioxide/sulfur dioxide)
    molecule is a bent shape (angular), O-S-O bond angle ~120o
    due to two groups of bonding electrons and one non-bonding lone pair
    of electrons.
  • The sulfate(IV) ion/sulphate(IV) ion,
    SO32- (sulfite ion/sulphite
    ion) is a trigonal pyramid shape, O-S-O bond angle ~109o
    due to three groups of bonding electrons and one lone pair of
    electrons.
  • Sulphur(VI) oxide/sulfur(VI) oxide, SO3 (sulfur
    trioxide/sulphur trioxide), is a trigonal planar shape, O-S-O
    bond angle of 120o due to three bonding groups of
    electrons and no lone pairs of electrons.
  • Sulfate(VI) ion/sulfate(VI)
    ion, SO42- (sulphate ion/sulfate ion)
    is tetrahedral in shape, O-S-O angle of 109.5o. due to
    four groups of bonding electrons and no lone pairs of electrons.
  • The shapes are deduced below
    using dot and cross diagrams and VSEPR theory and illustrated below.

selected molecule/ion shapes based on sulfur

valence bond dot and cross diagrams for sulfur
oxides and sulfur oxyanions

  • Note that all the S-O bonds within the
    molecule or ion are identical due to delocalisation of some of the
    electrons (σ sigma and π
    pi bonding)

Chlorine
in Group 7/17

  • The chlorate(III) ion, ClO2- (chlorite ion), is bent shaped (angular), O-Cl-O bond angle ~109o because of two
    groups of bonding electrons and two lone pairs of electrons.
  • The
    chlorate(V) ion, ClO3- (chlorate ion),
    is a trigonal pyramid shape, O-Cl-O bond angle ~109o
    because of three groups of bonding electrons and one lone pair of
    electrons.
  • The chlorate(VII) ion, ClO4- (perchlorate
    ion), is a tetrahedral shape, O-Cl-O bond angle 109.5o
    due to four groups of bonding electrons and no lone pairs of
    electrons.
  • The shapes are deduced below
    using dot and cross diagrams and VSEPR theory and illustrated below.

selected molecule/ion shapes based on chlorine

valence bond dot and cross diagrams for selected
chlorate ions

  • Note that all the Cl-O bonds within the
    molecule or ion are identical due to delocalisation of some of the
    electrons (σ sigma and π
    pi bonding)

Revision notes for GCE Advanced
Subsidiary Level AS Advanced Level A2 IB
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Chemistry CIE Chemistry, WJEC GCE AS A2 Chemistry, CCEA/CEA GCE AS A2 Chemistry revising courses for pre-university students
(equal to US grade 11 and grade 12 and AP Honours/honors level courses)

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