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6.2 Antidifferentiation by Substitution Objective SWBAT compute indefinite and definite integrals by the method of substitution

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Integration by substitution is a way to undo the chain rule. Let’s refresh:

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Example 2: Tell whether or not each antiderivative is going to undo into a chain rule (look to see if one portion of the integrand is the derivative of another part).

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Substitution Method

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Definite Integrals with Substitution Indefinite Integrals needed a “+C” at the end of every antiderivative. Definite Integrals have limits. If you change the variables, the limits still refer to the original variable. How will you decide to deal with those limits? You have two choices… – 1) Leave the limits in terms of the original variable and integrate like you did for the indefinite integrals. Once you have returned all variables back to the original letter, you can substitute in the upper limits and lower limits. – 2) Using the rule for change of variables, change the limits with the same rule, then you never need to return to the original variable. The limits must match the variable being used, or there must be some notation to indicate that the limits being used are different from the variable being used.

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Algebraic Techniques When substitution doesn’t work, sometimes you need to algebraically manipulate the problem into a form that will work. Some algebraic techniques that can be used include long division, expanding the function, completing the square, and separating the numerator. Let’s work through an example of each.

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Example 8: Find each indefinite integral. Long division can be used when the numerator has a larger degree (or equal degree) than the denominator.

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Expand! When the “inside” doesn’t have a derivative on the “outside,” try expanding the function.

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Separating the numerator is useful when you have more than one term in the numerator.

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Try these.

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Integrals involving Trigonometry, Squared Trigonometry, and Inverse Trig Functions A few useful trigonometric identities to refresh…

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Example 9: Integrate every trig function and their squares. (hint: you already know the four on this page)

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Examples with Inverse Trigonometric Functions Example 10: Find each indefinite integral.

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Try these integrals.

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Hint: Factor, and then use trig identities

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